Works Cited • Gerring, J. (2006). Case study research: principles and practices. Cambridge University Press. • Gerring, J.
Goodman's hypothesis of 'grue' is quite different from the above two indeterminacy in terms of both objective of introducing the concept and the usage of it. Goodman's issue is to search for the rules in screening out 'bad' assumptions in induction. This induction issue is not indeterminacy of Wittgenstein's skeptic arguments or Quine's radical translation. Wittgenstein and Kripke's conclusion that that rules are brute facts seems to be questionable. Form of life is one of Wittgenstein's key concepts in his theory on rules and is linked to rules in some crucial ways.
Third, I will review the political economy (social-spatial dialect) landscape of the “urban question” and how their panorama explains and gives better analyses of urban inequality. Definition: The Urban Question Again, this section will give a working definition of the “urban question’. To fully compare the political economy and ecological perspectives a description of the “urban question” allows the reader to better understand the divergent schools of thought. For Social Science scholars, from a variety of disciplines, the “urban question” asks how space and the urban or city are related (The City Reader, 2009). The perspective that guides the ecological and the social spatial-dialect schools of thought asks the “urban question” in separate distinct terminology.
Hove England: Psychology Press/Erlbaum (UK) Taylor & Francis. Smith, J. A., & Osborn, M. (2008). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In G. M. Breakwel (Ed.
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More and more, experts in the field of strategic planning and management are advocating for more attention to be paid on strategic thinking, and recommending for it to be considered a separate and distinct stage in the strategy planning and executing cycle. Results from the strategic thinking exercise feeds directly into creation of the strategic vision, which according Thompson, Strickland & Gamble (2008) is the first phase of a strategy-making, strategy executing cycle. Ingid Bonn (Bonn, 2001) is very convincing in her argument that not only is strategic thinking an important aspect of any manager’s role, but also that the thinker has special qualities. This implies that not all managers are necessarily strategic thinkers, and in order for an organization to have the best chance at producing optimal strategic plans, they should be particular about the people they hire at levels where strategic decisions are required, and that there should be some sort of criteria to evaluate the creative strengths of these individuals. Since the function of strategic thinking cannot be the effort of one individual, it is imperative that care is taken to build a cohesive strategic management team, who complement each other, and are able to draw from each other in a way that their efforts will be truly representative of a thorough analysis of the available information and who can produce a set of best strategic options of courses of action available to the organization.
Substantive judgments occur when an analyst’s ethics force the analyst to ignore the agendas of the policymakers and to be write judgments based on the evidence. (George and Bruce, 2008) All these psychological obstacles to sound judgment are clouded by complexity, uncertainty, and secrecy. Cognitive biases are distortions in information processing created by worldview, ideology, or political preference. (George and Bruce, 2008) The mindset of the analyst is the accumulated knowledge of past behav... ... middle of paper ... ...s. Policymakers need to allow additional time, increase analyst-staffing levels, and provide better direction to analysts so that judgments will become sounder. By developing improved communications between the analysts and the policymaker the judgments will be more useful.
(2007) Critical Thinking in Psychology. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press,
Pizzorno, A. (2008) ’Rationality and Recognition’ in della Porta, D., & Keating, M. (eds.) (2008) Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Science: A Pluralist Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Though they have apparent weaknesses, these methods do indeed satisfy the major goals of qualitative research. Historians and political scientists seek to have a broad yet deep understanding of society and politics based on multiple perspectives (Bogdan, 38). Very often, they want both a theoretical and empirical understanding of a given topic, as that suggests knowledge of general concepts along with detailed information. They aim to describe-though somewhat scientifically-and to form arguments mainly by explaining in qualitative terms the noteworthy attributes of a given social or political event or trend. Fundamentally, the two underlying goals behind such research are: (a) to understand the complex nature of politics and power in the context of human affairs, and (b) to explain political behavior (Marsh, 152; Johnson, 37).