Mill’s critics would likely say that Utilitarianism as a whole can function to create selfish people because all are striving towards a life of more pleasure than pain, but Mill shuts this down with the idea of happiness being impartial. Basically, a person must choose an action that yields the most happiness or pleasure, whether that pleasure is for them or not. Mill would recognize that, “Among the qualitatively superior ends are the moral ends, and it is in this that people acquire the sense that they have moral intuitions superior to mere self-interest” (Wilson). By this, it is meant that although people are supposed to take action that will produce the greatest pleasure, the do not do so in a purely selfish manner. Mill goes on to argue that the happiness of individuals is interconnected; therefore one cannot be selfish in such a way.
Meanwhile, moral incentives are much more subjective and individualized. Moral incentives use the rational and emotional sides of individuals to encourage or discourage them from making certain choices. It reflects the principles of being humane. It appeals to the conscience of... ... middle of paper ... ...ny incentive is only as effective as the amount of happiness it generates. In conclusion, incentives are dependent on factors such as morality, economics and social norm.
According to the Social Exchange Theory (Thibault & Kelley, 1959), we help each other when the cost-benefit analysis is positive, which means, the benefits are dominant comparing to the costs. If the cost of helping is higher than the benefit, it is less likely that we will help in a situation, which supports the theory that humans are rationally self-motivated and selfish. Altruistic behaviour has a much higher occurrence, when we have some kind of attachment to the person in the need of help. (Social Psychology, 2014)
This is called the value of relationship. The theory argues you can calculate this value by the rewards minus costs. Positive relationships are ones with a positive value, the rewards outweigh the costs. Negative relationships are ones with a negative value, the costs outweigh the rewards. The Social Exchange theory provides evidence to be able to predict that a worth of a current relationship influences its outcomes.
As explained by the collective effort model (Karau & Williams, 2001), individual performance is influenced by the perceptions of relations between individual efforts and expected outcomes. Thus, an individual engages in social loafing when the expectancy that that his or her actions can lead to the attainment of goals is lowered and when the subjective value of the goals is reduced (Law, 2016). In the intragroup competition condition, individuals are able to see a direct reflection of their efforts. If they perform well individually, they will win a prize. On the other hand, in the intragroup competition condition the efforts are pooled and the relationship between individual effort and goal attainment is not as direct.
The overuse of self-cleansing can be detrimental to one’s morale. As stated by (Kogut & Beyth-Marom, 2008), those who make decisions are not widely biased when helping another individual but they are more influenced by what they perceive the other individuals intentions are. When studying self-worth and willingness to help this must be taken into account otherwise the conclusion may be flawed. We hypothesize that both participants in the high and low self-worth conditions would be willing to help, but those in the low self-worth condition would be more likely to help a stranger rather than those with high self-worth.
In his book Utilitarianism, John Stuart Mill offers a defining of utility as pleasure or the absence of pain in addition to the Utility Principle, where “Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness” (Mill 7). Through this principle, Mill emphasizes that it is not enough to show that happiness is an end in itself. Mill’s hedonistic view is one in support of the claim that every human action is motivated by or ought to be motivated by the pursuit of pleasure. Suppose one was to record their pleasures down on paper using a graph. At first, one might be confused as to how to go about quantifying their happiness.