Sadly, many of those assaults are perpetrated by people who have already been through the correctional system only to victimize again. Sex offenders, as a class of criminals, are nine times more likely to repeat their crimes(Oakes 99). This presents a problem for the public, as potential victims, and the legal system which is entrusted by the public for protection. It would be irresponsible for the legal system to ignore the criminal class of sex offenders, for they are subject to a recurring physiological urge that requires the use of effective restraints that would curb the habitual repetition of episodes producing the harmful consequences to the public(Schopf 95). In light of this realization, steps beyond treatment have been taken to reduce the recidivism rate of sex offenders.
As the nature of sex crimes have long held the nation’s fascination, it represents only the tip of the iceberg as sex crimes seem to bring up more controversial questions than it answers. Because of our fear of sex offenders, the general public has been led to concentrate solely on the aspect of punishment as many bureaucrats have searched for different approaches to prevent sex offenders from re-offending again in order to improve public safety. Two main strategies that officials have tried to use to deter sex offenders are providing the option of chemical and/or surgical castration for sex offenders and lessening the caseloads of workers to ensure strict supervision of sex offenders. However, as sex offenders who were sentenced to prison eventually return to the community, the American Psychological Association believes that psychologists can treat the sex offenders as they attempt to fully reintegrate into society as law-abiding citizens (Kersting, 2003). This place an important role on community treatment of sex offenders’ rehabilitation as var... ... middle of paper ... ...c. 2014. .
Some studies showed a positive correlation between the violent threats towards victims and their decision not to pursue charges or any other mediation (Artz, 2011). In other words, threatened violence by the offender directed towards the victim was a reason behind the victim failing to cooperate. Artz (2011) further notes studies performed in the 1990’s showed women may not follow through with the process due to the criminal justice process itself. The process is very time consuming and with multiple court dates, taking off work and finding adequate childcare can create issues (Artz, 2011, p. 8). These studies also found the problems that can occur with the service of protection orders, misunderstanding of the criminal justice system itself, and once again, being afraid of the offender, will serve as a determining factor in a victims’ willingness to cooperate with further court proceedings.
The acceptance that the court system often treats female offenders differently than male offenders is an accurate statement; however, it comes with many caveats. Generally, the public views women as nurturers, motherly and incapable of harming a child. Research indicates that female sex offenders capable of committing such acts have serious psychiatric and psychological problems. In comparison, research indicates male sex offenders are more callous, more antisocial, and promiscuous, involved in the criminal justice system, and have more victims (Miccio-Fenseca, 2012, slide 7). The consensus is that men commit their acts for sexual pleasure while women commit their acts due to psychiatric and psychological problems.
Field validity of the STATIC-99 and MnSOST-R among sex offenders evaluated for civil commitment as sexually violent predators. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 15(4), 278-314. doi: 10.1037/a0017232 Miller, H. A., Amenta, A. E., & Conroy, M. A. (2005). Sexually violent predator evaluations: Empirical evidence, strategies for professionals, and research directions. Law and Human Behavior, 29, 29–54.
In childhelp. retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics/ Types of sexual violence (2009). In RAINN. retrieved November 14, 2013, from http://www.rainn.org/get-information/types-of-sexuaxchjuyl-assault Understanding child sexual abuse (2013). In American psychological association.
Cashwell, C. S. and Caruso, M. 2014. Adolescent Sex Offenders: Identification and Intervention Strategies. [e-book] Sage Publications. 1. http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/C_Cashwell_Adolescent_1997.pdf [Accessed: 14 Mar 2014]. 2.
What works. Chichester: J. Wiley. Ministry of Justice. (2009) What Works with Sex Offenders? Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/information-access-rights/foi-disclosure-log/prison-probation/foi-75519-annex-a.pdf Nicholas, S., Walker, A.
Richard Tewksbury’s research shows, “One large study of Uniform Crime Report trends in 15 states indicated that registration seems to have contributed to a reduction in sexual recidivism, but community notification has not” (Tewksbury 612). In fact, society and government should strengthen and adjust the source of sex offenders rather than force on the result which sex offenders have already registered. Registered sex offender information gives to sex offender’s family negative effects more than its functionality. Also Tewksbury’s experiment showed, because of legal restrictions, when sex offenders choice housing, they should be far away from school, day care center, amusement parks and other public places with specified distances ranging from 500 to 2500 feet (620). As a result, a large proportion of the housing is not available for sex offenders.
Retrieved from http://www.jaapl.org/content/31/4/502.full.pdf Dickson, M. (n.d.). Rape, the Most Intimate of Crimes. PBS. Retrieved March 31, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org/kued/nosafeplace/articles Rondeaux, C. (2006, July 5). Can Castration Be a Solution for Sex Offenders?.