1. When the ships Christopher Columbus came to the New World, they came under the flag of Catholic Spain. Describe two missionary efforts of the Spanish and tell what their goals were for these missionary efforts to the Indians. The Roman Catholics were one of the first Europeans to disembark in the New World. In addition, there were the Spanish Catholics. There were two missionary efforts of the Spanish that attempted to convert the Native Americans to Christianity. One of their attempts revolved around the priests and their ability to spread the faith. This attempt did not work for several years, until finally, in 1595, the Franciscans were able to progress with their plans. Furthermore, another attempt was when the Spanish used force to enforce their Christian belief. They were outnumbered by the Indians and therefore brought weaponry and soldiers to keep them at bay. Their reason behind the missionary efforts was that they were ordered to spread Christianity to the Native Americans by a holy spirit. 2. What is Catholic sacramentalism and how did Catholicism develop its sacramental sense? …show more content…
The first is that of the priest, who delivers the messages of Jesus during Mass. The priest becomes a symbol for the Catholics because otherworldly spirits are able to pass through and are amid the living for a short period of time. Furthermore, the pope of Rome is similar to the priest in that he becomes the embodiment of God. Though they are similar in this way, the pope of Rome is the head of the church and his words are equivalent to the words of the Bible. This representation provided an additional belief to the Catholics, both being in scripture and in church. In addition, the church became a symbol of belief, “Indeed, Catholic tradition put spirit and matter together by understanding the church as the Mystical Body of Christ” (pg. 66). With all these together, there is a functioning society within
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Although it may not have seemed fairly difficult in theory, The Pope along with the Crown of Spain set out with the goal to convert the Native Americans. One decisive factor that challenged that decree of conversion was the economic benefits that Spain would receive. This would eventually change the agendas of Spain, and ultimately it would indirectly make those living in the New World choose: Spain or Religion? This was not said in these exact words, but people, especially religious orders would have to choose to fight for what they believed in, or to follow the orders straight from the Spanish Crown.
These approaches by European Americans were thought to be more socially acceptable means to acquiring more land and expansion of their new world. The missionaries were successful at baptizing hundreds of Native Americans. They used the bible, sermons and Christian beliefs in God to influence tribal members to give up their cultural beliefs. The bible was translated into their native language in order to provide instruction and commitment to the word of God. In this culture, the way to a better life and forgiveness for savage acts, would be offered to all who believe in one God and become Christians. Heaven was introduced to the American Indians as well as a new belief in Hell, as an alternative demise. In all, many Christians came about from the missionaries’ efforts. Catherine Tegahkouita was one of the most celebrated Mohawk convert. There would be no other as devoted to God as she was during this crusade. “Nothing could be more beautiful, but with that beauty which inspires the love of virtue. The people were never weary gazing on her, and each left with his heart full of the desire to become a saint”.5 As more and more time went on, villages grew in Christian numbers. Still the missionaries continued to venture on to new unexplored lands to bring God’s word to them. Their objective, to save them from their barbaric
While the far-away North American tribes were having their land taken away, and being harassed by white American expansionists, they also faced another threat: Spanish occupation. During the early-1500’s, many Spanish explorers and conquistadors, such as Cabeza de Vaca, wished to find gold and riches and, in the process, they harassed, oppressed, tortured, and spread deadly diseases to the Native tribes. They often used the excuse of racial class-separation, known as “castas,” to justify their rotten, atrocious crimes. Throughout the 1600’s and 1700’s, the focus of the Spanish explorers experienced a shift from conquistadors wishing to acquire gold and wealth to Catholic missionaries wishing to religiously convert the Native tribes and, as a result, they built up many churches on the land. As one might guess, the
In earlier years of conquest the colonial church was still intact by the time the country was now New Spain. The church organization had by then created two distinct branches- secular and regular clergy. This would then spread around the word of Christianity to save souls. By assimilating this spread to the population of “Indians” they would then get acculturated into thinking their way of living was evil and to abandon their beliefs and to always “praise the lord”. Through t...
The French and Spanish were heavily influenced by Catholicism. Both colonies had established missions across the New World in hopes of converting Indians to Catholicism. The Spanish colonists were especially determined to establish missions and convert Indians in their territories as a response to the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile seeking to “transform their own pluralistic societies into a purely Christian kingdom (Butler 28). The Spanish were also heavily influenced by religion due to the Crusades in the Old World as well being motivated by “gold, God, and glory” for voyaging into the New World. The role of religion in Spanish society extended out towards how they governed their colonies as the Catholic populations were under control of both the monarchy and the Vatican. The French Catholics had taken example from the Spanish by establishing multiple missions in the New World in efforts to become trading partners with local Indian tribes. Both New Spain and New France were heavily influenced by Catholicism c...
Some would say that Christopher Columbus was a devout Christian. He believed that "his was a mission that would put Christian civilization on the offensive after centuries of Muslim ascendancy" (Dor-Ner 45). Columbus' original mission was to find a western route to the Indies. But when that failed, his mission became clear: convert these new people to Christianity. Throughout this paper I will show the view of the natives by Columbus and Christendom and how these views changed over a span of fifty years.
America was found by European explorers, and as they began to explore they found the native people of these new lands. The Europeans began to influence the Native Americans by turning them into Christians and educating them. Although some agreed to be influenced, others didn't causing the relationship between the Native Americans and Europeans to be lopsided, unequal, and untrusting.
The Europeans used their power of law and order to subdue and control the indigenous. They wanted to instill their beliefs, culture, and values onto the natives and used agents of directed culture change to influence the people. Missionaries played a major role in transforming the native communities. Missionaries believed they were helping the inhabitants by “converting and civilizing” the indigenous. They also used their power to exploit any resources they could find to benefit the church and their home land. However, while they worked with authority to take over land and culture, they often had conflict with the brutal treatment that authorities inflicted on the native people. Missionaries had many views on converting. Some thought “that indigenous people were subhuman and should be controlled… others assumed that indigenous people were … capable of intelligent thought and reasoning” (Bonvillain 2013). Missionaries claimed they were enlightening the people and used economic and political arguments to convert them. If the natives were to convert they awarded them with favorable trading and provided guns for their use. Missionaries also encouraged Christia...
One of the most controversial topics in Christianity is sacraments. Scholars define the word “sacrament” many ways. A common definition is that a sacrament is an outward, visible sign of an inward, spiritual reality. It would be inaccurate to say that a sacrament is just a sign. It should be viewed as an encounter or something that brings something else about. In other words, a sacrament is something that points beyond itself and has meaning in a spiritual sense. Sacraments compile a range of imagery which all have deeper meanings than meet the eye. It is not just a ritual enactment of something else going on; it has objective order.
The spreading of Christian views and beliefs were very popular amongst the French and Spanish societies. Both the French and Spanish missionaries took it upon themselves to travel to the “New World” to spread the message of Christ. Many of the missionaries were not prepared to deal with the very different lifestyles and religious views that the natives had. The missionaries had to use many tactics to relay the message of Christ to the native people of the Americas. Many missionaries would struggle at converting the natives while on their religious quest to mission. Both the French and the Spanish would feel as though it is their duty to try and convert these pagan believers to Catholicism. This would ultimately lead to conflict amongst the different cultures. This paper will discuss the many different tactics used by both the French and Spanish missionaries in trying to convert and spread Catholicism. It will also discuss how they also viewed the lifestyle and culture of the natives. Lastly I will discuss how the natives responded to the missionaries and what they thought of these foreign invaders.
Many Christian monks would come to the new world and try to convert the native people to Catholicism in many times the natives would convert in fear for their lives and in (Document 9) The Oral History of Chief Hatuey, Chief Hatuey was captured and sentenced to burn at the stake and that day we was giving a chance to convert to Christianity by a monk and when the monk told Hatuey that once you are baptized he or she would go to heaven. Hatuey asked the monk “would the spanish go to heaven once they were baptized” and the monk replied and said yes they would if baptized, with that new info Chief Hatuey bravely replied that he would rather go to hell is the spanish would go to heaven as well. There goes to show that the natives did not like on how the spanish did things during the time and exploration in the new world. With the spaniards coming and taking over land
There was no Christianity in the Americas before the Age of Exploration which began in 1492 with the arrival of Christopher Columbus. In 1493, Ferdinand and Isabella sent out a second expedition to Latin America. These Christian Missionaries arrived from the Kingdom of Spain and much of this work was in the form forced conversion and enslavement as the Spanish conquest developed. The Spanish soldiers carried weapons into battle with the Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples. They came with a desire to impose Christianity and Spanish rule on the continent and a hope for the riches that were believed to be there. There was a systematic attempt to spread Christianity through a permanent missions and they did so by converting people as well as attempting the spread their culture and influence.
From the Catholic observation point, the Church presents two parts: One representing its divine nature as the untarnished body of Christ, and one direc...
The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church recognizes two sacraments only. They are the Sacrament of Baptism and The Lord’s Supper. “Sacraments, ordained of Christ, are not only badges or tokens of Christian men’s profession, but rather they are certain signs of grace and God’s good will toward us, by . . . invisibly in us, and . . . quicken, but also . . . confirm, our faith in, Him.” Baptism is not only a flag of declaration and stamp of separation by which Christians