Antibiotic resistance occurs when microorganisms become immune to specific drugs that are prescribed by doctors to kill other microorganisms. Usually, bacteria can be eradicated because they are single celled organisms but when drugs become defiant, they do not function properly. When antibiotics are taken, they enter the bloodstream and interfere with all microbes in the body while also altering body functions (Bren FDA, 2003). Sometimes antibiotics may not necessarily target its “wanted” target but instead, they attack both harmful and benign bacteria. When the bacteria that are sus... ... middle of paper ... ...inistration.
Once resistance builds in one patient, it is possible for the strain to be transmitted to others through improper hygiene and failure to isolate patients in hospitals. Resistance arises from mutations that are not under the control of humans, but the evolution of bacteria has been sped along by the overexposure of antibiotics to both people and animals. The number of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria in an area is closely related to the frequency that antibiotics that are prescribed (Todar, 2012). Patients often unnecessarily demand antibiotics to treat common colds or simple illnesses that are not caused by bacteria. Instead, these infections are caused by viruses which, unlike bacteria, are unaffected by antibiotics.
In National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved February 20, 2012, from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/myasthenia_gravis/myasthenia_gravis.htm Lewis, S., Heitkemper, M., Dirksen, S., O’Brien, P., & Bucher, L. (2007). Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems. (7th ed). Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Inc. Yale School of Medicine (2011).
Endometriosis. Retrieved November 5, 2013, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/endometriosis/DS00289 MedicineNet. (2013, March 19). Endometriosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Surgery, Treatment - MedicineNet. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http://www.medicinenet.com/endometriosis/article.htm#endometriosis_facts World Endometriosis Research Foundation, & Endometriosis Foundation of America (2011, November).
There are many things that comes to play when considering gingivitis (inflammation of the gum) but the major cause is a micro-organism known as BACTERIA. From the American Societies for Experimental Biology, analysis confirms that Porphyromonal gingivalis is the known bacteria that causes gum disease. These bacteria manipulate the immune system to disable normal processes that will otherwise destroy it. In effect, when pla... ... middle of paper ... ...ican Societies for Experimental Biology. (2013).
Long gradient of retrograde amnesia in mice: Continuity with the findings in humans. Behavioral Neuroscience, 98(2), 345-348. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.98.2.345 Squire, L.R., Slater, P.C., & Chace, P.M. (1975). Retrograde amnesia: Temporal gradient in very long-term memory following electroconvulsive therapy. Science, 187, 77-79 http://psychiatry.ucsd.edu/faculty/lsquire.html
PubMed Health. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001295/ Mayo Clinic. (2011). Crohn’s disease. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/crohns/diagnosis.html Mohan, V. (2010).
Brain structures and their functions. Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/Structure1.html Mayo Clinic staff. (2013, July 13). Creutzfeldt-jakob disease treatments and drugs. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease/DS00531/DSECTION=symptoms National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Institutes of Health.
In conclusion, animal testing is a subject that will continue to be argued about for years to come. There are two very distinct sides to the debate, it is either acceptable or it isn’t. Animal testing is a very beneficial process when used to discover cures in the medical field but should not be used just to simply test a new brand of cosmetics of household products. There have been several advancements made so far and more cures will be discovered as time goes on and more products are tested. The medical field has advanced so much due to the discoveries made from testing out new vaccines and medicines.