According to the American Cancer Society, Every year, more than 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer; furthermore Twelve percent of all women will contract the disease, and 3.5% of them will die from breast cancer (American Cancer Society, 2005). There are risk factors that may lead to breast cancer. There are 4 stages of breast cancer and several treatments, although treatments vary from types and stages of breast cancer. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women who are 40 to 55 years old (Breast Cancer, 2009).When cells divides it causes cancer which then changes from an normal call to what’s called a cancerous cell that requires gene alterations. The uncontrolled growth and alter genes is what causes tumors to form.
About 40,800 United States ladies were killed off by breast cancer in the year 2000 (Meister). Breast cancer also affects more that 1,000 men, in the United States, a year (National Cancer Institute). According to the National Cancer Institute, the number of women in the United States who learns that they have been diagnosed with cancer exceeds 180,000. Breast cancer, following skin cancer, is now the most prominent form of cancer among women in the United States. What are the reasons people get cancer?
Almost 90% of all breast cancer begins in the ducts and lobes of the mammary glands (Bartholomew). Breast cancer is a type of cancer where cells in the breast divide and grow without normal control. By the time a lump is big enough to feel, it may have been growing for at least ten years, and by that time, it is harder to control how fast the cancer will grow or spread to other parts of the breast, and maybe even other parts of the body. Studies have shown that in the United States alone, around 192,370 new cases of breast cancer will occur in one year. An estimated 40,170 women die from breast cancer each year.
In invasive cancer, the cancer cells spread from inside the breast to other parts of the body. The cancer cells can reach the lymph nodes and spread to other organs like the bones, lungs, or liver. In non-invasive breast cancer the cancer is still only found in the breast. The most common symptom of breast cancer is finding a new lump in the breast. Other possible signs of breast cancer are having a swollen breast, having irritated, red, thickening or dimpled skin on the breast, having pain in the breast or nipple, having a breast nipple turning inward, and having discharge from the nipple (other than breast milk for nursing mothers).
In the United States in 1999 alone, an estimated 43,700 people will die from breast cancer. It is the number two cancer killer among females ages 15 to 54. On average if a woman gets this disease, their life expectancy drops drastically. This cancer is within the top three cancers of all women above the age of 15, and comprises a great amount of all health care costs in the U.S. totaling an astounding 37 billion dollars a year in direct medical costs. An average woman is said to have a one in nine chance of getting the cancer, but if that person had family history of the disease, his or her chances have been measured up to a one in six chance.
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In the United States, starting from the first breast cancer case in 1930s to today, a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer increases to one eighth (Gray et al.). Continuously increasing breast cancer rate has caused a lot of concerns among not only ordinary people but also scientists. For decades, scientists have been working on the causes of breast cancer in order to find the corresponding methods of treatment. However, only about 25% of the breast cancer cases got explained (Brody et al. ); till today, heredity, lifetime exposure to environmental estrogen (the female sex hormone), and the dietary fat are the only major known causes (“Cover Story: Breast Cancer and Environment”).
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