A research design is defined as a plan or blueprint of how one intends to conduct research (Mouton, 2005:55). A research design focuses on the end product of the research process, that is, the type of study being planned and the type of results aimed at. Its point of departure is the research problem, and hence it focuses on the type of evidence required to address the problem adequately.
According to Mouton, research designs are tailored to address different kinds of research questions. Thus, when attempts are made to classify different kinds of research studies to different design types, they are classified by the kind of research questions they are able to answer. Research designs can be mapped out to the types of research questions (research problem) using four dimensions: 1) empirical versus non-empirical dimension, 2) using primary versus using secondary data, 3) the nature of the data (numerical versus textual data) and 4) the degree of control (structured (laboratory) conditions versus natural field settings)
The first dimension, which is relevant to our study, is that of empirical versus non-empirical studies. Empirical studies involve observing and measuring reality, thereby confirming knowledge through direct experience. Non-empirical (theoretical) studies involve developing and exploring theories that account for given data.
The second dimension is that of the nature of data used in the study. Data used in empirical studies can be numeric, textual or a combination of both. When the basic data used in an empirical study consist of words, the research is classified as qualitative, whereas if the data used are numeric, the research is classified as quantitative. A research design may also combine quantitative and qualitat...
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...chniques and procedures among those associated with quantitative or qualitative research. A literature review, which included document analysis, was used to answer sub-questions one, two and three. A model building approach was suggested to answer sub-question four. In addition, the study uses a case study as a proof-of-concept. The use of a case study is a qualitative empirical study to strengthen the research validity. Since the research methods directly responding to the research questions (Literature review and Model building) make use of textual data, we classified this study as a qualitative study. Table 3.1 below summarises the classification of this study in terms of the dimensions discussed above.
Research Method Dimension 1 Dimension 2
Literature review Non-empirical Qualitative
Model building Non-empirical Qualitative
Case study Empirical Mixed Method
Research can be quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative research is objective and involves measuring the phenomena under investigation. Qualitative research is subjective, explores experiences and feelings, and involves the recording of phenomena that cannot easily be quantified (Toates, 2010, pp. 5-6). Both are empirical since they involve data collection (OU, n.d.).
Different styles of research are employed in research to safeguard that the facts are acquired to permit examiners to find resolution to the principal queries for the study correctly, therefore, evading uncertainty ( ). Acquiring relevant proof encompasses stipulating the type of proof mandatory in answering the query. Methodological designs encompass logical complications; therefore, matters of sampling, information gathering methods, and queries are secondary to the type of method used in research. Strategies are often compared with quantitative and qualitative research methods. Research and collective studies are often observed as principal specimens of quantitative research and are evaluated compared to the flaws and strong point of numerical, examination, and quantitative research methods ( ).
Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem, it is a science of studying how research should be carried out. The way in which researchers go about their work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology. This is also defined as the study of methods where knowledge is gained (arxiv.org, 2015).
Evidence-based practice utilizes research design analysis from arrays of studies design, it is imperative for research scholars to understand how to read, and how to comment on the quality of research design utilized. There is three major research designs, namely quantitative, qualitative and mixed method; however; mostly utilized in evidence-based practice are quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative and qualitative research designs are exclusive in the description and generate distinct outcomes. Quantitative research design explores relationship amongst independent design variables, the data compilation approach and design firmly controlled than the qualitative data compilation (Polit & Beck, 2017). The outcome of an
Experimental designs are viewed as the most accurate, and most demanding of research designs, requiring strict attention to rules and procedures. Researchers use these research designs to manipulate and control testing procedures as a way to understand a cause and effect relationship. Commonly, independent variables are manipulated to judge or decide their effect on a dependent variable (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008).
There are many elements involved in conducting a proper research. The two general types of research designs are qualitative and quantitative. These types of designs are different in many ways. Quantitative is an objective research typically focused on numerical data. Qualitative research is subjective research focused on narrative data. This paper further elaborates on many elements that separate quantitative research from qualitative research.
This will be a discussion of qualitative research. It will define qualitative research, as well as look at the similarities and differences in the quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Furthermore, this discussion will look into qualitative case study research and phenomenological research, with further contemplation of purposes, methods, and limitations for these two methods.
topic definitions, gaps in the study and sources are key essentials to conduct a literature review (Hart, 2008). Nature of Study. According to Babbie (2013) using a qualitative methodology is appropriate for a study using a case study in design. A qualitative methodology is one of the three scientific research methodologies that is used to answer questions in a study. A qualitative case study involves the exploration of one or more cases within in a bounded system. Methodology. The methodology is appropriate for this study by providing the advantage of using open-ended questions to probe responses of the participants by allowing participants to respond using their own formulated responses instead of forced solicitation of responses. (See
45). Furthermore this research demonstrates a deductive tactic to the association between theory and research. In deductive approach, a hypothesis/ hypotheses would be generated based on the association between a particular domain and the constituted theory which would then be subjected to factual analysis. The findings derived from this scrutiny would either validate or invalidate the existing theory. In addition the Quantitative research favours epistemological orientation supporting natural science methods especially to positivism which highlights the utilization of objective scientific procedures used in natural sciences to study social world. Further quantitative research incorporates objectivist ontological orientation which stresses on the fact that social occurrences and related associations are independent of the social actors (Bryman & Bell: 2011, pp.11- 21). Thus quantitative research depicts researcher’s viewpoints, is more structured laid on a foundation of reliable data with scope for generalization of the
The research was designed using qualitative model based on exploratory design. This was done to facilitate multi-faceted study with a broader prospective. Basic percentage analysis was done to supplement qualitative analysis. The study was conducted with the help of a Questionnaire. To deepen the understanding data was collected from a variety of books, Internet web pages, and articles of different kinds conducted was descriptive in nature. Descriptive research includes survey and facilitating enquiries of different
A research design basically comprises of procedures and methods to be taken in order to achieve the pre-determined research objectives or to test the formulated hypotheses statements. The role of a research design is to ensure that statistical findings generated by the data would provide valid and conclusive answers to the stated research questions. Research design can take various forms, namely (i) exploratory research, (ii) descriptive research and (iii) causal research. This study is a descriptive approach and this mean that we wanted to describe and reveal particular characteristics and pattern.
Planning or conducting a study requires research and a good design. “A good design, one in which the components work harmoniously together, promoting efficient and successful functioning; a flawed design leads to poor operation or failure” (Maxwell, 2013, p. 2). When conducting research, the research questions are the normal starting point. They are what drives the study and, therefore, the piece that controls the design which all other components must follow (Maxwell, 2013). With the research questions at the center of the design, unlike typical research models, the interactive model of research design is connected in such a way as to provide
There are two kinds of research design, which are “Qualitative Research” and “Quantitative Research”. The purpose of the Quantitative Approach is to measure situation by examining numeri-cal information, on the other hand, Qualitative Approach purposes to examine the sample by ana-lyzing literal information. To illustrate information in depth as well as investigate sophisticated is-sues, Qualitative approach is more suitable and useful