The Construction of Beauty: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Women’s Magazine Advertising. The Journal of Communication, 55(1), 56-70. doi: 10.1111/j.14602466.2005.tb02658 (Frith, Shaw, & Cheng, 2005) 4. Kilbourne, Jean. “Beauty…and the Beast of Advertising.” Center for Media Literacy. 17 Feb. 2007 5.
To elaborate, Scott argues that as a picture interpreter, we must make a distinction between the “ideal and the real,” to understand the true meaning of an image. She argues how the Gibson Girl and the American Girl were two idealised visions of modern beauty and femininity which made women to try to be like them. These two girls became markers of their decade, ... ... middle of paper ... ...mer. I believe that both articles shed a positive light on the emergence of the New Woman in all areas of society; including socially, economically and publicly. Though Scott’s chapter, readers can see how women were influenced by publicities and how they took those messages and brought them into their own daily lives.
Devereaux, Johanna “Affecting the Shade”: Attribution, Authorship, and Anonymity in An Essay in Defence of the Female Se,Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature(Vol 27) Number 1, Spring 2008, pp. 17-37 http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tulsa_studies_in_womens_literature/summary/v027/27.1.devereaux. html Jones, Vivien Women in the eighteenth century: constructions of femininity, Routledge, 1990
http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1383&context=utk_chanhonoproj Laire, Delphine, “Little Women, a Feminist study”(2008-2009) . Ghent University Faculty of Arts and Philosophy. http://lib.ugent.be/fulltxt/RUG01/001/366/158/RUG01-001366158_2010_0001_AC.pdf Fetterley, Judith, “Little Women: Alcott’s Civil War” http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3177602?uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103292006007
Rebecca Block and Lynda Hoffman-Jeep. “Fashioning National Identity: Frida Kahlo in ‘Gringolandia’.” Woman 's Art Journal, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Autumn, 1998 - Winter, 1999), pp. 8-12 Block and Hoffman-Jeep’s journal article served as the inspiration for the thesis concerning Frida Kahlo’s fashion and persona as opposed to the one crafter by mass media, imperialist magazine producers.
Guéguen, N. (2009). Menstrual cycle phases and female receptivity to a courtship solicitation: An evaluation in a nightclub. Evolution and human behavior, 30(5), 351-355. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.03.004 Jacob, C., Guéguen, N., Boulbry, G., & Ardiccioni, R. (2009). Waitresses' facial cosmetics and tipping: A field experiment. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(1), 188-190. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.04.003 McCall, M., & Lynn, A.
William began her process by explaining and reviewing social constructionism. She defined social constructionism in her article as providing the most comprehensive body of theoretical concepts to explain experiences of girls from different social locations. She then proceeds to explain how social constructionism has its roots in social interactionism and how all meaning in society, including gender, are made through interactions, thus society produces gender. She explains and discusses how this relates to gender and intersecting factors. Intersectionality is the idea that gender is not an isolated status that we experience but instead it intersects with our other identities.
Hillman, Shropshire and Cannella (2007) seeks to answer the question of why do some organizations have women on their board of directors while others do not? This review will seek to identify the objective of the study; basic assumptions and theories deployed; identify the hypothesis and research methodologies used in testing the assumptions, and discuss the results before reaching a conclusion. The research question is appropriate because it focused on the characteristics organisations have that are likely pointers to the level of female representation on its board. Previous research looked at female representations based on work group level (e.g Cox & Nkomo, 1991; Milliken & Martins, 1996) or on an individual level. In addition, despite the several agitations and literatures that show the accrued benefits of having more women on board( e.g Blackman, 2004; Browder, 1995; Gasparino &Boyce, 1998), recent statistics shows that men still hold a greater number of seats on boards of US firms.
Feminism for me has come to be the recognition of oppression and privilege. What one does with this knowledge of oppression and privilege is that person’s version of feminism. After reading Tong (2009) on various feminist theories, I have come to see the different feminist theories in a continuum of the feminist movement. Therefore, these theories cannot be boxed into clear-cut categories that share nothing in common with each other. I will attempt to formulate my own feminist theory using the previous works of feminist scholars as my foundation.
(http://makewealthhistory.org/2011/10/26/the-trouble-with-advertising-2/) womeninads.webs.com Fredrickson, B. L. and Roberts, T.-A. (1997), OBJECTIFICATION THEORY. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21: 173–206. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future By Stanley Baran, Dennis Davis pg 187, chp 6. Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Ramsey, Laura R; Jarworski, Beth K. Sex Roles 64.