focused on the key qualitative research methods. For each article review, a brief description, guided by Myers (2013), and a critique, guided Pratt (2009), is provided. A summary of the five articles identifying the research method, data collection technique, data analysis approach and critique is provided in Table 1. The narrative review of each article coupled with figures and tables to organize and visualize thoughts (Pratt, 2009) follows the summary table.
1. Journal Article - Reference - Diamond, N., Sherry Jr, J. F., Muñiz Jr, A. M., McGrath, M. A., Kozinets, R. V., & Borghini, S. (2009). American Girl and the brand gestalt: Closing the loop on sociocultural branding research. Journal of Marketing, 73(3), 118-134.
1a. Description - The goal of the research was to gain a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the sources and meanings of social cultural branding through ethnographic exploration of the American Girl brand (Diamond et al., 2009). The approach used for each of the building blocks in the qualitative research design model (Myers, 2013) for the American Girl (Diamond et al., 2009) article is shown in Figure 1.
The underlying philosophical paradigm used by Diamond et al. (2009) in the American Girl article is interpretivist research. The authors don’t predefine variables (Myers, 2013) to explain the American Girl brand, but use social activities, costs, facts, images, meanings and differences (Kozinets, 2001) to make sense of the American Girl phenomenon. To gain an in-depth understanding and broader context (Myers, 2013) of the multi-ethic, multi-generational and multi-national (Diamond et al., 2009) nature of the American Girl environment, the research method used was an ethnographic exploration. For three...
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... data (Myers, 2013). To illustrate the application of grounded theory to the tourism and hospitality industry in this article, the two dimensional framework proposed Urquhart, Lehman and Myers (2010) is depicted in Figure 4. Connell and Lowe (1997) demonstrate interpretation on the degree of conceptualization on the x-axis and substantive focus of the theory scope on the y-axis (Myers, 2013). The article notes that data collection interview and fieldwork produced 40,000 words of data and sufficient evidence (Connell and Lowe, 1997), but the article does not show any of the data (Pratt, 2009). As a result, it is not clear how the researcher connects the data to the practical application of the approach in international tourism and hospitality industry. The article does explain the motive and need (Pratt, 2009) for inductive qualitative research using grounded theory.
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This phenomenon suggests that all women are required to remain loyal wives and stay at home mothers who aspire to achieve perfection. In “Mirrors of Masculinity: Representation and Identity in Advertising Images,” Jonathon E. Schroeder and Detlev Zwick claim that “highly abstract connections are made between the models, a lifestyle, and the brand” resulting in a need to associate these products with a specific way of living (25). Instead of simply displaying these luxurious bracelets and handbags, the ad creates an elegant environment through the incorporation of sophisticated items. The women are dressed elegantly in dresses and blouses, adding a conservative element to the ad. The ad presents a rather stereotypical image of the very successful heads-of-household type mothers who have brunch with other elite women in an exclusive circle. Everything from the merchandise they sport to the champagne glasses down to the neatly manicured fingernails provides insight into the class of women presented in this ad. The body language of the women strips the image of the reality element and instead appears to be staged or frozen in time. This directly contributes to the concept of the gendered American dream that urges women to put up a picture-perfect image for the world to see. Instead of embracing individual struggle and realities, the American dream encourages women to live out a fabricated
We see the ways that the popular media uses gender tensions everywhere. The truth is that sex sells, we know that. The challenge that advertisers face is: How to use it best. Some advertisers do this better than others and the ones that truly have an understanding of gender tensions will, in the end, sell the most. In my last paper, I explored how the company Abercrombie and Fitch uses gender tensions to sell their clothes. They have become among the masters in advertising and the business in booming. They cater to young adults and young adults only for one powerful reason: It is at this age in which the sexual tensions between male and female are greatest. Abercrombie and Fitch has found their niche.
Something people might frequently worry about is self-identity, and how to express who they are. When looking for an outlet to do this, the easiest way to show what kind of person someone is, clothes are usually the first choice: a black t-shirt with a cynical saying, or maybe some skinny black jeans. Whether the advertising agencies created the personalities that come with clothes or took advantage of what was already there, clothes are often sold as something more than just clothes. Companies must ask how to convince consumers to buy their product instead of the competitors’, regardless of price difference. Particularly Levi’s jeans, a 150+-year-old American business, has been trying different approaches to packaging the type of consumers that buy their jeans.
Nicole places her opinion on how brands can relevantly engage target audiences, touch consumer senses, get noticed and win them.
The article focuses on Individualization and uniqueness and how it has begun to find its way into current advertisements. By allowing a woman to express her individuality it shows boldness, fearlessness, and confidence and that is refreshing in today’s world of fashion.
The content of the article revealed products from numerous countries, such as the United States, Germany and from the author Tahlia Pritchard’s home country of Australia. The globalization of gender based consumer products expands to a wide range of industries. The industries providing these constant reminders that men and women are different are primarily the food, health and fitness industries, but also oddly include the home organization and tool industries. I have had exposure to some of these products as a consumer and observer of what gender specific products others seem to buy. Companies making these various products capitalize on consumers who wouldn’t dare to bu...
Important Issues: A global brand is needed to provide relevant meaning and experience to people across multiple societies. To do so, the brand strategy needs to be devised that takes accounts of brand's own capabilities and competencies, the strategies of competing brands, and the outlook of consumers experience in their respective societies.
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
If a specific culture expresses a preference to flamboyant glamour, then a product marketed in a conservative manner might not accurately target consumers. According to Wang, (2012), Chinese believe “feminine” is more about being conservative, sensitive, gentle and sweet verses smart and strong or fashion forward. Chinese women are inclined to desire cute, girly pink garments over the provocative, racy American apparel. One reason why ‘Hello Kitty’ has done so well in China is they keep products cute and innocent (Wang, 2012). Americans dress in a more nontraditional way that allows each individual to express him or herself, whereas Chinese dress more traditionally conservative. Tailoring products aesthetics to the specific culture is essential for which the market exists or it runs the risk of being misrepresented (Wang, 2012). Mattel attempted to promote styles of clothing that did not align with the Chinese apparel, and furthermore, they found it to be a low quality for the price (Wang, 2012). It is vital to comprehend the target market before attempting expansion, or it will be a costly detriment to the
The developmental stages of a successful campaign help to establish the product in the audience’s mind or consciousness. The stages of the Nike campaign can be described by using the Yale Five-Stage Developmental Model. Yale researchers developed this model while observing the growth of national identity. The first stage of this model is identification. Our text states that “Many products and causes develop a graphic symbol or logotype to create identification in the audience’s mind” (p. 264, Larson). The logo Nike is most famous for is “The Swoosh.” This is the term given to the symbol of winged victory that appears on Nike products. “The design of the swoosh logo was inspired by the wing from the Greek goddess Nike” (p. 3, http://shrike.depaul.edu /~mcoscino/word.html). The Nike logo’s presence can be noted in almost every aspect of the athletic world.
Qualitative research is an approach that attempts to situate an activity that locates the observer in the world by providing the study to occur in their natural setting and by attempting to make sense of, or interpret information (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005). A characteristic of qualitative research is to use a variety of empirical materials such as personal experience, interviews, and questionnaires. It is imperative to understand the task at hand and how to fully carry out the study when using a qualitative research approach in order to find out the information needed. One view of qualitative research is it involves examining individual’s experiences and documenting those experiences in detail (Jones, 2011). By documenting these observations the researcher is ensuring validity in his or her data and giving the correct creditability to those who participated in the study.
The notion that we are what we have and consume is not uncommon (Belk, 1988; Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000). Indeed, products communicate cultural meanings (McCracken, 1986). Users’ image is usually defined as “consumer beliefs based on experience, observation, and marketing activity, about who uses the brand, expressed in demographic and lifestyle terms” (Patterson, 2000, p. 419). This user image is likely to be important to brand personality since typical users of a particular brand provide a reference point for group membership and aspirations (Biel, 1993). According to Aaker, J., (1997), the perceptions of users image can be created in two ways: the consumer perceptions of the images of people in ads using the brand; and consumer perceptions of people they think to use the
Reed II, A., 2002. Social identity as a useful perspective for self-concept-based consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(3), pp.235-236.
Often times, companies use a social group in society and turn them into objects to enhance the impact of their advertisement. A social group that is commonly targeted is women, as they are used to attract both men and their own gender to different products. In Burger King’s ‘Seven Incher’ burger advertisement, American woman are objectified. Burger King is attempting to reel in customers through standard appeals, diction, and images, but in turn is blatantly marginalizing women.