Some see Montesquieu “The Spirit of the Laws” book as a critique of the royal power, or the vision for a new reform. Francois-Marie Arouet de Voltaire was a writer historian and a famous philosopher. Many of Voltaire essays contain big criticism of the Catholic Church; he saw the religion as an essential power to the public morals. Jean Jacque Rousseau was philosopher writer and composer. He criticizes the Old Regime and the monarchy in his book “The Second Discourse on The Origins of the Inequality “he argued that the tyrant monarch could be turned out because of his subjects.
began to emphasize the capacities of the human mind and the achievements of human culture, in contrast to the medieval emphasis on God and contempt for the things in this world" (Slights 129). However, the whirlwind of change brought on by the budding ideas of Humanist thinkers was met with a cautious warning by one the greatest writers of the era. Christopher Marlowe's Dr. Faustus acts as mask, containing and disguising the dramatist's criticisms of Renaissance thinking. Christopher Marlowe's Dr. Faustus is, in many ways, reflective of humankind's struggle to balance new ideas with existing traditional thoughts as the world neared the 17th century. At the time this play was written, "Elizabethans saw the world as a vast, unified, hierarchical order, or 'Great Chain of Being,' created by God" (139).
I believe that Marlowe subscribed to the renaissance view of the world, and Doctor Faustus was intended to express Marlowe’s outrage at the consequences of seeking knowledge or thinking differently during the Elizabethan era. Marlowe rejects all previous authority just as Faustus does, and with them, Faustus rejects the ideals of the previous era. Marlowe goes as far as demonizing mainstream society through Mephistopheles. Mephistopheles, like Elizabethan society, punishes intellectuals, yet initially, Mephistopheles attempts to dissuade Faustus from reaching his goals. Faustus’s goals were shared with many humanists; however the means by which he intended to carry out his dreams were sinful.
The word Renaissance means “rebirth” and it was the response to the brutal hardships of daily life in the middle ages. It was mostly based around humanism, fine arts, and reformation of the Church. Early humanists such as Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, and Niccolo Machiavelli wrote books and expressed new ideas about humanism which made everyday life more secular and free willing. The three major factors of the Renaissance that were different from the middle ages were Humanism, improvements in discovery, and the Reformation of the Church. In the middle ages, people’s lives were very dedicated to two things: the Church, and feudalism.
Donne's style of writing was not only a significant factor in the Renaissance, but also the transition into "The Age of Reason". In Sonnet 10, from Holy Sonnets, he is able to contribute to the Renaissance ideal described in the preceding quote. "A rebirth of the human spirit...," describes a change in emotion that stems from a religious belief. Before the Renaissance, life and death were thought to be predetermined. Towards the end of the Renaissance, poets began to question parts of this belief, and as a result, the value of life came into question.
Bruni studied the classics for self-amelioration. This type of study brought about much of the cultural and educational recovery from the Middle Ages attributed to the Renaissance. Machiavelli attempted to provide a model of his ideal government. He judged go... ... middle of paper ... ...ala." This dictated a need for the understanding of human nature, not that of the divine. Machiavelli's writing in The Prince represented the Renaissance, in that its concepts--humanism, individualism, and secularism--were present throughout its discourse.
The new thinking associated with the Renaissance and humanist movement allowed authors such as Thomas More to write Utopia, a unique commentary on the contemporary state of Italy which More contrasted to an idealized island, and made it acceptable for Lorenzo Valla the discuss the topic of free will. The combination of the newfound humanist thinking, along with social commentaries, allowed for religious figures such as Martin Luther to lead the Protestant reformation, encountering distaste in the current state of the Catholic community he decided to create a new, less corrupt religion. The skeptic aspect of humanism allowed for discussion on analysis of critical tenets of Christianity such as free will, ultimately leading to Luther’s reformation of the Catholic Church. The first considerable movement of the Renaissance was the humanist movement led by Francesco Petrarch that began in the early 1400’s. Humanism is not a formal philosophy; therefore, Petrarch ca... ... middle of paper ... ... Renaissance and the introduction of skeptic thought, most people would have had to endure practices of the overbearing Christian religion, along with its dogma and traditions which had been deeply rooted for centuries.
The first is "a devotion to the humanities or the revival of class, individualistic and critical spirit, and emphasis on secular concerns characteristic of the Renaissance." Renaissance is capitalized. Another definition reads as follows: "a doctrine, attitude, or way of life centered on human interests or values, especially a philosophy that usually rejects supernaturalism and stresses an individual's dignity and worth and capacity for self-realization through reason." Ousted from power and in exile from Florence, the city where he had served as a diplomat, Niccolò Machiavelli wrote a famous how-to-do politics book called The Prince. That was nearly 500 years ago and yet it holds a prophetic relevance for own age.
French historian Jules Michelet saw the renaissance as a beacon of democracy and liberty, Jacob Burckhardt applauded the rediscovery of the classics, and Walter Pater saw in this period “a spirit of rebellion and revolt against the moral and religious ideas of the time.” They were in like mind with the Renaissance thinkers themselves, but as Bartlett points out one cannot study their own time period with proper objectivity needed for accurate historical analysis. The Renaissance is a continuation of the late medieval period, built and grounded in it, rather than the dawn of a completely separate era. The growing republics, the influx of classical influence, and the rising secularism grew out of the middle ages rather than being spontaneously birthed at the start of
The Period of Enlightenment (or plainly the Enlightenment or Period of Reason) was a traditional movement of intellectuals commencing in the late 17th- and 18th-century Europe emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. Its intention was to reform area employing reason, trial thoughts based in rehearse and faith, and advance vision across the logical method. It promoted logical believe, skepticism, and intellectual interchange. It challenged superstition and intolerance, alongside the Catholic Church as a favorite target. A little Enlightened philosophes collaborated alongside Enlightened despots, who were definite sovereigns who endeavored out a little of the new governmental thoughts in practice.