Renaissance Figures

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Renaissance Figures Cosimo de' Medici, also known as Cosimo the Elder, lived from 1389--1464. He was the first Medici to rule Florence. He was exiled from Florence in 1433, but he returned in 1434 and doubled his wealth through banking. He ended Florence's traditional alliance with Venice and supported the Sforza family in Milan. His historical significance was being a patron to such artists as Brunelleschi, Donatello, and Ghiberti, and as the founder of the Medici Library. ? Lorenzo de' Medici, also known as Lorenzo the Magnificent, lived from 1449--1492, and he was one of the towering figures of the Italian Renaissance. He had little success in business, however, and his lavish entertainments depleted his funds. In 1478 Pope SIXTUS IV helped to foment the Pazzi conspiracy against him. Lorenzo's brother Giuliano was murdered, but Lorenzo escaped with only a wound, and the plot collapsed. In spite of the attacks of Girolamo Savonarola, Lorenzo allowed him to continue preaching. Lorenzo's historical significance was being a patron of Bottielli and Michaelangelo. His second son later became pope as Leo X. ? Henry VIII lived from 1491--1547, and he reigned from 1509--1547. He married his brother Arthur's widow, Katharine of Arogon, who bore him a daughter, MARY I. His chief minister, Thomas Wolsey, concluded an alliance with Francis I of France, but joined Emperor Charles V in 1522, in a war against France. England prospered internally under Wolsey, who had almost complete control. The court became a center of learning, and the pope gave Henry the title "Defender of the Faith" for a treatise he wrote against Martin Luther. By 1527 Henry, desiring a male heir, wished to marry A... ... middle of paper ... ... interruptions, the council played a vital role in revitalizing the Roman Catholic church in many parts of Europe. Though Germany demanded a general council following the excommunication of the German Reformation leader Martin Luther Pope Clement VII held back for fear of renewed attacks on his supremacy. France, too, preferred inaction, afraid of increasing German power. Clement's successor, Paul III, however, was convinced that Christian unity and effective church reform could come only through a council. After his first attempts were frustrated, he convoked a council at Trent (northern Italy), which opened on Dec. 13, 1545.which established the foundations of the Counter Reformation. Bibliography: All information was found at www.britannica.com and at www.comptons.com. Also a little was pulled from Microsoft Encarta.(not much though)
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