Pope Clement VII was the illegitimate son of Giuliano de' Medici. In 1513 he was made archbishop of Florence and cardinal by his Pope Leo X. He supported Charles in the fighting that ended in the Battle of Pavia (Feb. 24, 1525), during which Francis was taken prisoner. The next year he joined Francis in the league, a treaty opposing Charles. Pope Pius IV was Pope from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565.
Lorenzo de Medici was one of the most influential figures in this era due to his unorthodox politics as well as his generous contributions to the world of art. Because of these two themes, Lorenzo was the main proponent that helped start the Renaissance, and influenced Italian life thereafter. Lorenzo was born into the aristocratic Medici family on January 1st, 1449 and at an early age was trained for power. He rose to become the ruler of Florence, after his father Piero died prematurely, assuming the title Prince of Florence. At first, he shared power with his younger brother Giuliano.
Henry responded to these Theses by writing a dissertation titled, Assertio Septem Sacramentorum, or the “Defense of the Seven Sacraments,” in 1521. It was this work, defending the papal supremacy and dedicated to Pope Leo X of Rome, that earned Henry the title of Fidei Defensor, or “Defender of the Faith,” (Betteridge). This title was soon questioned as Henry adamantly sought to annul his marriage from Catherine. He believed that by marrying his brother’s widow, he was going against the Bible, where in Leviticus Chapter 20 Verse 16 it states, “If a man shall take his brother’s wife, it is an ... ... middle of paper ... ...so responsible for the dissolution of the monasteries. By removing the legal authority of the Pope in England and Through the Act of Supremacy, Henry declared that he alone had the power of authority and reform in his church (Bowker).
Philip had two wars on his hands at the same time, in Italy and in the Low Countries. In Italy the Duke of Alva, Viceroy of Naples, defeated the Duke of Guise and reduced the pope to such distress that he was forced to make peace. Philip granted this on the most favourable terms and the Duke of Alva was even obliged to ask the pope's pardon for having invaded the Pontifical States. In the Low Countries Philip defeated the French at Saint Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558) and afterwards signed the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis (3 April, 1559), which was sealed by his marriage with Elizabeth of Valois, daughter of Henry II.
During the second attempt, Henry’s forces captured the city of Boulogne, however, Henry’s forces were strained when they lost the support of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Henry succeeded his father in the spring of April 1509, adopting the regal name of Henry VIII. In an effort to make a marital alliance betw... ... middle of paper ... ...maining monasteries became dissolved, and all property was transferred to the crown. During 1539, the previous alliance between Charles and Francis had broken, concluding into a renewed war. Relationships between Charles and Henry were renewed, and a secret alliance was concluded between the two Emperors. He entered the Italian War in favor of Charles.
Martin Luther and the Break With Rome Martin Luther began as a simple Augustinian Friar in the Roman Catholic Church, the reigning power of Western Europe for hundreds of years, and he soon became the leader of the most important stand against the Catholic Church. I call Luther’s actions a stand rather than a revolt because he did not willingly mean to disrespect the entire church or even start a new denomination of Christianity, he was only trying to bring truth to it. Luther published writings such as The Ninety-five Theses, Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation and A Treatise on Christian Liberty, all which produced outrage in the Church for the fact that it blatantly accused the clerics, and especially the pope, of many wrong doings in their practice. Luther belonged to a church in Wittenburg, Germany and here he was a scholar as well as a priest. He, like many others, came to notice the corruption in the Church.
In Europe at the beginning of the 16th century, the Roman Catholic Church had become extremely powerful, but many felt that it had also become internally corrupt. In essence, many believed that the Renaissance popes were fraudulent because they no longer practiced Christianity due to the extravagant lives they were living. In the beginning of the 1500’s, educated Europeans began calling for a reformation, a change in the Church’s ways of teaching and practicing Christianity. Martin Luther, specifically, was highly influential in igniting the Protestant Reformation by challenging long-standing church traditions as well as new church policies. The Protestant Reformation was begun by Martin Luther, a German monk and Catholic friar.
A major part of the Catholic Church was that the Pope decided what happened, for example who gained a divorce, and Henry has now split and undermined the Pope. This shows England moving away from the Catholic faith, but not yet towards Protestantism. In January 1534 the Second Act of Annates was passed this said that future abbots and bishops were appointed by the King and not the Pope. This shows that Henry is assorting his... ... middle of paper ... ...pper class people to be able to learn and read the Bible. They did not wish for the lower class to be educated.
Cardinal Wolsey virtually ruled England until his failure to secure the papal annulment that Henry needed to marry Anne Boleyn in 1533. Wolsey was quite capable as Lord Chancellor, but his own interests were served more than that of the king: as powerful as he was, he still was subject to Henry's favor - losing Henry's confidence proved to be his downfall. The early part of Henry's reign, however, saw the young king invade France, defeat Scottish forces at the Battle of Foldden Field (in which James IV of Scotland was slain), and write a treatise denouncing Martin Luther's Reformist ideals, for which the pope awarded Henry the title "Defender of the Faith". The 1530's witnessed Henry's growing involvement in government, and a series of events which greatly altered England, as well as the whole of Western Christendom: the separation of the Church of England from Roman Catholicism.
Thankmar was defeated and killed, the Franconian Eberhard submitted to the King, and Eberhard of Bavaria was deposed and outlawed. In 939, however, Otto’s younger brother Henry revolted; he was joined by Eberhard of Franconia and by Giselbert of Lotharingia and supported by the French king Louis IV. Otto was again victorious: Eberhard fell in battle, Giselbert was drowned in flight, and Henry submitted to his brother. Nevertheless, in 941 Henry joined a ... ... middle of paper ... ...to ratify papal elections was included in the original version of the treaty or added in December 963, when Otto deposed John XII for treating with Berengar and set up Leo VIII as pope. Berengar was captured and taken to Germany, and in 964 a revolt of the Romans against Leo VIII was suppressed.