Renaissance Figures

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Renaissance Figures

Cosimo de' Medici, also known as Cosimo the Elder, lived from

1389--1464. He was the first Medici to rule Florence. He was exiled

from Florence in 1433, but he returned in 1434 and doubled his wealth

through banking. He ended Florence's traditional alliance with Venice

and supported the Sforza family in Milan. His historical significance

was being a patron to such artists as Brunelleschi, Donatello, and

Ghiberti, and as the founder of the Medici Library.

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Lorenzo de' Medici, also known as Lorenzo the Magnificent, lived from

1449--1492, and he was one of the towering figures of the Italian

Renaissance. He had little success in business, however, and his lavish

entertainments depleted his funds. In 1478 Pope SIXTUS IV helped to

foment the Pazzi conspiracy against him. Lorenzo's brother Giuliano was

murdered, but Lorenzo escaped with only a wound, and the plot collapsed.

In spite of the attacks of Girolamo Savonarola, Lorenzo allowed him to

continue preaching. Lorenzo's historical significance was being a patron

of Bottielli and Michaelangelo. His second son later became pope as Leo

X.

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Henry VIII lived from 1491--1547, and he reigned from 1509--1547. He

married his brother Arthur's widow, Katharine of Arogon, who bore him a

daughter, MARY I. His chief minister, Thomas Wolsey, concluded an

alliance with Francis I of France, but joined Emperor Charles V in 1522,

in a war against France. England prospered internally under Wolsey, who

had almost complete control. The court became a center of learning, and

the pope gave Henry the title "Defender of the Faith" for a treatise he

wrote against Martin Luther. By 1527 Henry, desiring a male heir,

wished to marry A...

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... interruptions, the council played a vital role in revitalizing the Roman Catholic church in many parts of Europe.

Though Germany demanded a general council following the excommunication of the German Reformation leader Martin Luther Pope Clement VII held back for fear of renewed attacks on his supremacy. France, too, preferred inaction, afraid of increasing German power. Clement's successor, Paul III, however, was convinced that Christian unity and effective church reform could come only through a council. After his first attempts were frustrated, he convoked a council at Trent (northern Italy), which opened on Dec. 13, 1545.which established the foundations of the Counter Reformation.

Bibliography:

All information was found at www.britannica.com and at www.comptons.com. Also a little was pulled from Microsoft Encarta.(not much though)

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