While Halliday and Hasan (1976) and other researchers primarily use literary texts, Cook (2001) and Huang (2001) deal with cohesive devices in advertisements, and Yu (2004) investigates cohesive devices in academic introductions from the perspective of genre. Nevertheless, the study of cohesive devices in non-literary texts is still a neglected area which needs further explorations. 5. Conclusion
Inspired by CLT further research in methodology centered around communication. It gave rise to content based Instruction(CBI), Task based language Teaching (TBLT) and Participatory approach. In these approaches rather than “learning to use English” students “use English to Learn” (Howatt 1984: A History of English Language Teaching). Content Based Instruction (CBI) focuses on the topic or subject matter: students learn the subject using the target language. It is assumed that language learning happens naturally where student unconsciously acquire the language.
1. Introduction An ESP course entails rigorous adherence to its absolute characteristics that define it as need based pedagogy which uses specific content and specialized language to help learners acquire proficient use of language in diverse academic or workplace contexts. ESP involves various steps in designing, implementing and assessing a target course. This includes identification of the key issues that are specific to the teaching and learning context, cognizance of the implications for the course design, conducting a comprehensive needs analysis, collating the results of research, analysing data, developing course outline, selecting materials, defining appropriate methodology, developing assessment tools, and evaluating the course for further improvement. 2.
Print. “profane.” Webster’s New World Dictionary and Thesaurus. 2nd Edition. 2002. Print.
The need for developing the speaking skills is of primary importance in any language and it deserves even more importance in the case of learning English as a second language. This article explains the two prominent approaches of structural competency and the communicative competency in teaching and learning English. The various steps involved in teaching the spoken skills in English in the students through the structural approach as well as the communicative approach are dealt in detail. The ways in which these two approaches can be integrated to develop the spoken skills is also analyzed. Language learning through structural approach and language acquisition through communicative approach are explicated in this article.
The book English Pronunciation in Use by Hancock, M, & Donna, S. (2014), the general approach is segmental since it focuses on teaching individual sounds and what happens to them when they are put together to form words. Therefore, it is referred to as segmental approach to pronunciation. For example, unit two of this excerpt: Plane, Plan. English learners are presented with the vowel sounds /eɪ/ and /æ/ as individual sounds and also students are required to listen to the sound /eɪ/.
As it is shown in the Contents section, this chapter will be organized in two sub-chapters (The etymology of the ~ing form and respectively, The multiple uses of the -ing form) under the generic title of THE DIACRONIC APPROACH OF THE -ING. We propose to start with a diachronic approach of the -ing form, beginning with Old English until Modern English. We believe that only by a historical analysis of the -ing phenomenon we can understand its multiple uses and flexibility, consequently, we continue by listing the English – ing forms. In this chapter we propose to cluster significant data about the origins and development of the -ing, which will be most helpful in the developing and supporting the purpose of this paper. 1.1.
He conducted that the concept of group seems as another scope of the collocability words. Halliday, Sinclair(1966, when quoted by AL-zahrani 1998) sees that collocation and grammar, as being two dissimilar sides. The author clarified that the way of selections arrange a language structure , for instance,( passive and active choices). Semantic approach The semantic approach is looking for collocation as an independent component from grammar. Undertaking of this trend tries to give an explanation about the reason of assemblage certain words with each other(Lehrer 1974).