When students attempt to read new material, whether it is a narrative or textbook related, it is a good idea for them to ask themselves to think about the content of this material. They need to devise a way to take a picture by walking through the text; look at headings and chapter titles, and make predictions about various events or words highlighted. Good readers are active in their reading. They ask questions about new words and concepts, make comparisons, and draw on their prior knowledge to assist them in comprehension. (Duke and Pearson, 2002) Developing good reading comprehension is more than just thinking about how to comprehend. Students must also be taught specific skills that are essential to good comprehension.
Fluency instruction …show more content…
Word recognition involves includes that of blending, applying sight words and Syntactic cues and sit under the umbrella of phonological awareness and reading fluency. Reading comprehension is the process of understanding what is been read and sits under the umbrella of reading vocabulary and reading for enjoyment (pg 10). These components will allow students to recognize words quickly and effortless and with enjoyment. Of all the skills children learn in school, reading is the most important but unfortunately children are sometimes faced with barriers that if not dealt with properly will prevent them from overcoming reading difficulties. Jennings, Caldwell and Lerner (2009) stated that Reading difficulties can be a problem of emotional, neurological, cognitive, and can even be associated with intelligence and intellectual factors. They went on to say that the environment which includes the home, school, social and cultural environment can also influence reading. They pointed out neurological is how the brain performs during reading and cognitive is the mental actions. Any deficit in these areas could interfere with how students interpret information that is presented to them (pg 23-24). Since reading is a vital skill to success, it is important that children who are faced with reading difficulties get evaluated early and given …show more content…
The use of bottom-up and top-down processing is context-dependent. In some cases, individual words need attention (bottom-up) whereas in other cases, the entire context requires focus (top-down). Bottom – up uses pieces and breaks words down individually to comprehend word meaning before combining the entire piece being read. This sometimes will cause comprehension breakdown because contextual awareness is used.
Top – down approach is more common in classrooms but is not necessarily the most effective approach for reading comprehension. The reader uses the overall theme or purpose to garner comprehension. This is sometimes not effective because individual learner variables (race, culture, native language, etc.) cannot place the text into context without individual word knowledge.
These two approaches combined will be effective in a reading classroom, but may not be effective in a regular educational setting. The approaches put limits on teachers trying to achieve curriculum standards and guidelines. The time factor of implementing these two approaches would be demanding for a regular classroom
Reading: According to the teacher’s data, work samples and classroom observations, Danica has made program towards her reading goal. She is able to decode through unknown words, recall details and to answer questions from short passages; however she struggles with comprehension question for lengthy reading selections. Progress monitoring shows that she is averaging in the 30-40% proficiency for reading comprehension. Danica has shown improvements towards her reading fluency, according to the Mclass DiBels assessment, 51wpm from 21 wpm at the (BOY) beginning of the year. Informal observation made by the teacher notes that Danica demonstrates weakness in comprehension and fluency. The difficulty in the area of comprehension impacts the general education setting in the
The reading selections for this week provide a historical perspective of comprehension instruction at various grade levels. The authors describe characteristics of learners at various grade levels, examine previous instructional goals and discuss the goals for the future, examine previous learning contexts and what learning contexts should become and how assessment strategies can be improved to meet the challenges of learners at various grade and proficiency levels. It is important to note the influence of multiple literacies and the challenges of integrating conventional discourses and nonconventional discourses in the learning context. Wharton-McDonald and Swiger (2009) said, “Instructional practices that repair the disconnect between students’ public and private literacies—practices that form connections between what is personally interesting to students and the material they are asked to read in school will support the development of comprehension processes” (Developing Higher Order Comprehension in the Middle Grades, 2009, p. 523).
“Deep reading” is a challenge that opens doors. Like cardio for the heart, reading trains and pushes the brain to a new level. Not only does reading stimulate the back lobe of the brain allowing humans to develop as better intellectuals, it puts the human mind in the situation of a character, thus exercising the ability to empathize.
There are many different methods of teaching students to understand the meaning of a text and what the students read. Close reading is a common method teacher’s use when teaching the text’s meaning. A close read is when the student is required to develop a deep understanding of an informational or literacy text by discovering the hidden clues within a text about the author’s purpose and characters. After the student has gone through the close read method, it is expected students figure out how to gain a deeper understanding and what is confusing about the text. When choosing a text for the students to read the reading level is a factor, the passage must be slightly above grade level. After the first reading, the students look at the vocabulary
There are several reading and writing strategies in the classroom that encourage a student’s literacy development. One of the seven focus methods is known as modelled reading. Modelled reading occurs when a teacher “models, demonstrates and verbalises the behaviours for reading and writing” (Flint, 152). When demonstrating modelled reading, the teacher is responsible to lead the focus method by using “big book, picture book or an enlarged version of a poem” (Flint, 151). Whilst reading this text, the teacher selects a teaching point (eg. phonics, vocabulary, comprehension skills) and identifies any challenges and supports in the text and for students.Within modelled reading there are two key terms to be aware of; whole-part-whole and a mini lesson. The whole-part-whole strategy is an instructional strategy where the teacher alters the focuses between the whole text and smaller sections of the text. A mini-lesson focuses on introducing and discussing strategies in a short instructional session.
According to Irwin (as cited in Tompkins, 2015), comprehension is “a reader’s process of using prior experiences and the author’s text to construct meaning that’s useful to that reader for a specific purpose” (p. 215). “Comprehension is a creative, multifaceted process in which children engage with and think about the text” (Tompkins, 2015, p. 214). Readers use four levels of thinking literal, inferential, critical, and evaluative as they comprehend. The lowest level is literal comprehension. At this level readers identify the big ideas, sequence details, notice similarities as well as differences, and identify explicitly stated reasons. The highest level is evaluative and at this level readers integrate their own knowledge with the information presented in the text.
Most adults are able to see words and instantly know their meaning. For example, we will see the word futon and associate it with furniture and not foods. Word recognition is a skill that is developed over years and occurs in stages. It is important for teachers to recognize these stages and Jennings, Caldwell and Lerner (2010) stress that knowing those stages will allow teachers to help those students with reading troubles (pg. 191).
With both of these definitions of comprehension they use the word process in the definition. The use of this word implies that comprehension is not immediate and there is a process that can be used to obtain it. This process, uses both the working memory and the long term memory portion of the brian, and a brief understanding of this process is essiential. There is a limit to what a person can hold in short term memory and the strategies used to teach comprehension must take this into consideration. By using strategies that limit the amount of information that is used in short term memory, the student can process this information and arrive at a better comprehension of what they read. The goal of reading is to put the comprehension of w...
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress results, “an average of 69% of Students in 4th grade, 71% of adolescents in 8th grade,and 60% of adolescents in 12th grade read below the proficient level, meaning that those Students do not demonstrate strong grade-level reading proficiency” (Melekoglu, 2011, p.249). This states how the reading gap between students who have difficulties with reading comprehension and those who do not increase every year. When students are
Fluent readers are able to identify words in text quickly and accurately with a minimal amount of attention. Research suggests that reading fluency is a essential factor between 4th grade students, but it can also be an significant issue beyond the elementary grades. (Pinnell, et al.1995).Samuels (2006) claimed that the principle of reading fluency is the ability of decoding and comprehending a text at the same time. Blevins (2005) noted that a fluent reader is one who can read fast, identify words spontaneously, and understand expressions correctly. As automaticity develops, the reader can read more rapidly and have extra attention available for meaning (Allington, 2004; LaBerge & Samuels,
Many students have a hard time when it comes to reading. There are many reading inventions that can help students out. Reading inventions are strategies that help students who are having trouble reading. The interventions are techniques that can be used to assist in one on ones with students or working in small groups to help students become a better reader. Hannah is a student who seems to be struggling with many independent reading assignments. There can be many reasons that Hannah is struggling with the independent reading assignments. One of the reasons that Hannah can be struggling with is reading comprehension while she is reading on her on. Reading comprehension is when students are able to read something, they are able to process it and they are able to understand what the text is saying. According to article Evidence-based early reading practices within a response to intervention system, it was mentioned that research strategies that can use to help reading comprehension can include of activating the student’s background knowledge of the text, the teacher can have questions that the student answer while reading the text, having students draw conclusions from the text, having
The subskill theory approach to reading is one that has been around for a long time, and is based on instructional strategies to teach letter-sound relationships, sight words and decoding skills (among others), until the reading act becomes automatic. Comprehension does play a role in this theory, but it is a small role, in my opinion. I know this system works, because it is the way I was taught to read. I believe it is vital for young children to understand the relationship between sound and symbol relationships. This approach gives children a strategy for sounding out words that are unfamiliar to them. Unlocking the pronunciation of a word can sometimes lead to the word’s meaning, if the child is familiar with the word, and this is an important skill for young readers to have. But, the goal of reading is to ga...
Based on Gary Woolley's study , most of children in Australian School have difficulties with reading comprehension. Teachers should consider a number of programs to gain the best result. It has been show that despite early improvement , yet many students have difficulties , focus on word level processing skills rather than comprehension dificits , is more prefer for some students. Because this focus is too narrow, suitable assessment of reading difficulties is