An embryo forms in the uterus of a soon-to-be mother. Already the organism is dependent on its mother and is physically attached to her through the formation of the umbilical cord. After birth, the interactions between the child and its caregivers determine whether this attachment continues on a healthy path or begins to become disturbed. When the latter occurs, children may develop reactive attachment disorder (RAD) Being that this disorder is fairly misdiagnosed and misunderstood, there is not much empirical data as pertains to its etiological bases and epidemiology. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders characterizes RAD has a disorder that occurs when a child has experienced repeated insufficient care. Moreover, children with this disorder really concentrate on attention and attachment that they perceive from the world around them, whether they avoid it (inhibited type) or crave it (disinhibited type). Further research is needed in the years to come in order for RAD to become more recognized and understood. Attachment An infant’s initial contact with the world and their exploration of life is directly through the parent/ primary caregiver. As the child grows, learns, and develops, a certain attachment relationship forms between them and the principle adult present in this process. Moreover, this attachment holds huge implications concerning the child’s future relationships and social successes. Children trust that their parental figure will be there; as a result, children whom form proper attachments internalize an image of their world as stable, safe, and secure. These children will grow independent while at the same time maintaining a connection with their caregivers. (Day, 2006). However, when a child f... ... middle of paper ... ... H. (2009, October 13). Forty-four Juvenile Thieves Revisited: from Bowlby to Reactive Attachment Disorder. . Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2009.01048.x/full Hall, S.E.K., & Geher, G. (2003). Behavioral and Personality Characteristics of Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder. The Journal of Psychology, 137, 145-162. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00223980309600605#.U2H4vl69ZuY Marwick, H., Minnis, H., Arthur, J., & Alexis, M. (2006, May 9). Reactive Attachment Disorder— A Theoretical Model Beyond Attachment. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=90fcde98-dcd9-465b-b3fd-193bdc468041%40sessionmgr114&vid=2&hid=101 Solomon, J., & George, C. (1999). Attachment Disorganization. New York: The Guilford Press.
In secure attachment, infants use the caregiver, usually the mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment. Secure attachment is theorized to be an important foundation for psychological development later in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In insecure attachment, infants either avoid the caregiver or show considerable resistance or ambivalence toward the caregiver. Insecure attachment is theorized to be related to difficulties in relationships and problems in later development. Developmentalists have begun to explore the role of secure attachment and related concepts, such as connectedness to parents, in adolescent development. They believe the attachment to parents in adolescence may facilitate the adolescent’s social competence and well-being, as reflected in such characteristics as self- esteem, emotional adjustment, and physical health (Allen & Kuperminc ; Armden & Greenberg; Black & McCartney; Blain, Thompson,
Relationships are the building block for personality and are significant in children’s ability to grow into substantial individuals who can thrive in an often harsh world. Constructing lasting and fulfilling relationships is an integral part to development as the interpersonal bonds forged are not only highly sought after but also set the ground work for all upcoming expressive interactions. Relationships and attachment go hand in hand as attachment is the strong and lasting linkage established between a child and his or her caregiver. Moreover, attachment significantly influences a large capacity of ones make up as it these first relationships that teaches morals, builds self-esteem, and develops a support system. The pioneers of Attachment Theory realized early on that human beings are not solely influenced by drives but that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers greatly impact their ability to forge lasting relationships later in life. John Bowlby was first to introduce this theory to the masses in the 1950’s, and later Mary Ainsworth conducted further research to expand on Bowlby’s theory which proclaims that attachment is a “lasting psychological connectedness between human beings” (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194). The attachment bond theory by both Bowlby and Ainsworth focuses on the significance of the relationship between babies and their caretakers which research has suggested is accountable for influencing impending interactions, firming or injuring our capabilities to concentrate, being aware of our emotional states, self-soothing capabilities, and the capacity to be resilient in the face of hardship. Additionally, this research has provided a framework for assisting in describing these att...
(Early infant attachment is an important phenomena to study as it is connected to later child development). Early infant attachment is linked to cognitive, social, and emotional development (Pallini, Baiocco, Schneider, Madigan, & Atkinson, 2014). These three developmental aspects are significant in one’s later mental process capabilities, the relationships formed later in life, as well as their psychological stability. The attachments formed with caregivers in infancy are vital. Bowlby stated, “It is our first relationship, usually with our mother, that much of our future well-being is determined” (O’Gorman, 2012). It’s crucial for a child’s development to look at parenting styles and early infant attachment classifications which are made to caregivers. Most research focuses around mother-infant attachment making little known about the relationships made with fathers.
Reactive Attachment Disorder is a common infancy/early childhood disorder. Reactive attachment disorder is located under the trauma- and stressors-related disorder section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), Fifth Edition. It is normally diagnosed when an infant or child experience expresses a minimal attachment to a figure for nurturance, comfort, support, and protection. Although children diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder have the ability to select their attachment figure, they fail to show behavioral manifestation because they had limited access during the early developmental stage. Some disturbed behaviors include diminished or absence of positive emotions toward caregiver. In addition, children with reactive attachment disorder have a tendency to have episodes of negative emotions including a period of fear, sadness, and irritability that cannot be explained. According to the DSM-5 (2013), reactive attachment disorder impairs children’s ability to relate on a personal level with adults or peers along with many other functional impairment in several domains during early childhood. The clinical disorder is likely to manifest in a child between the ages of nine months and five years (p. 267).
The attachment theory, presented by Mary Ainsworth in 1969 and emerged by John Bowlby suggests that the human infant has a need for a relationship with an adult caregiver, and without a subsequent, development can be negatively impacted (Hammonds 2012). Ainsworth proposes that the type of relationship and “attachment” an infant has with the caregiver, can impact the social development of the infant. As stated by Hammonds (2012), attachment between a mother and a child can have a great impact on the child 's future mental
Connection, according to Curt Thompson (2010), is the most crucial determinant of our long-term welfare. The degree to which we are attached to significant others in our lives, affects not only our interpersonal dynamics throughout life, but impacts our neural networks as well as those of our children (Thompson, 2010). This attachment begins during the first moment of life, and is nurtured and shaped by a child’s relationship with his or her parents, or lack thereof.
The child feels more desire to explore when the caregiver is around, and he or she is discontented when the caretaker goes away. This pattern of attachment is characterized by high discriminative aspects where the child highly sensitive to the presence of strangers (Newton, 2008). A child becomes happy where the caregiver is present and dull when the caregiver goes away. Secure attachment level and intensity is determined by the caregiver sensitivity to the needs of a child. Consistent response to a child needs by the caregiver or parents will create a relatively strong secure attachment pattern. Care and attention are the major determinants of secure attachment and a child who revives a lot of attention and care from his or her parent are much prone to develop secure attachment, and it is an indication that the parent is responsive to the child
Infant attachment is the first relationship a child experiences and is crucial to the child’s survival (BOOK). A mother’s response to her child will yield either a secure bond or insecurity with the infant. Parents who respond “more sensitively and responsively to the child’s distress” establish a secure bond faster than “parents of insecure children”. (Attachment and Emotion, page 475) The quality of the attachment has “profound implications for the child’s feelings of security and capacity to form trusting relationships” (Book). Simply stated, a positive early attachment will likely yield positive physical, socio-emotional, and cognitive development for the child. (BOOK)
The influence of early attachment relationship is very significant, and it is associated with children development of emotion, behaviors, and socialization. As insecure attachment, disorganized attachment has many negative outcomes. Many researches proved its linkage with externalizing behavior problems such as aggression, impulsivity, and oppositional defiance. Moreover, the children with disorganized attachment also face to the difficulty of emotion socialization. Lyons-Ruth and Jacobvitz concluded that disorganized attachment of infants is most common the maltreatment and other high risk cases, however, it till comprise 15% in the normative cases (as cited in Solomon, 2011). As a result, it is very important for us to know the conception of disorganized attachment, the caregiving behaviors associated with disorganized attachment, so we could know how to help the children build secure attachment.
Bowlby and Ainsworths approach to attachment explains how three specific attachments, formed at a young age, affect an individual’s ability to form attachment throughout their life. As a Social Worker, using this approach could support them in understanding why individuals make certain attachments or why attachments cannot be made. It could also aid the Social Worker in adapting their approach when working with the service user. These attachments are, secure, ambivalent and avoidant, they focus solely on a child’s attachment with their primary care giver. For a child, the secure attachment is created from consistent contact and regular care from one person. This person will also be the child’s secure base, for example, when the child feels no discomfort or threat they will explore their surroundings knowing they have their secure base to return to (Sudbery, 2010, Pg.53). A secure attachment can also contribute to resilience in an individual due to feeling loved and valued by their family and friends. “Resilience refers to...
Attachment is described as the close emotional bond between two people and Attachment Theory (AT) generally concentrates on the early bonds in a person’s development as well as the effects that these bonds have on later socio-emotional development. While emphasis on attachment as an antecedent for future behavior and personality has decreased somewhat in recent years, it is interesting to note that the DSM IV-TR includes a “reactive attachment disorder” which it states is caused when extreme circumstances prevent proper attachment development.
Insecure attachments can often result when an attachment relationship is threatened by the parent not consistently being available. Bowlby suggested that the level of anxiety that some children experience could be directly linked to the way in which the child is attached to their parents or primary caregivers. Bowlby also considered that inconsistently attached children were continuously afraid of being alone; this could be due to their parents or caregivers being unreliable and ignorant concerning the child’s
Attachment theory is the idea that a child needs to form a close relationship with at least one primary caregiver. The theory proved that attachment is necessary to ensure successful social and emotional development in an infant. It is critical for this to occur in the child’s early infant years. However, failed to prove that this nurturing can only be given by a mother (Birns, 1999, p. 13). Many aspects of this theory grew out of psychoanalyst, John Bowlby’s research. There are several other factors that needed to be taken into account before the social worker reached a conclusion; such as issues surrounding poverty, social class and temperament. These factors, as well as an explanation of insecure attachment will be further explored in this paper.
Attachment is crucial to the survival and development of the infant. Kenneth and Klaus points out that the parents bond to their child may be the strongest of all human ties. This relationship has two unique characteristics. First, before birth one individual infant gestates within a part of the mothers body and second, after birth she ensures his survival while he is utterly dependent on her and until he becomes a separate individual. According to Mercer, the power of this attachment is so great that it enables the mother and father to make the unusual sacrifices necessary for the care of their infant. Day after day, night after night; changing diapers, attending to cries, protecting the child from danger, and giving feed in the middle of the night despite their desperate need to sleep (Mercer 22). It is important to note that this original parent-infant tie is the major source for all of the infant’s subsequent attachment and is the formative relationship in the course of which the child develops a sense of himself. Throughout his lifetime the strength and character of this attachment will influence the quality of all future ties to other individuals. The question is asked, "What is the normal process by which a father and mother become attached to a healthy infant?"...
A number of studies focused on the mother- infant relationship and the effect of child care on the development of such relationship (Belsky, 1989; Lamb, Sternberg, & Prodromidis, 1992). Attachment theory indicates that a secure relation formation between child and caregiver is important for the child to develop flexible behavioural system and adapt easily to new situations. Bowlby (quoted by Lamb, Sternberg, & Prodromidis) summarised that attachments form around middle of the first year and are strengthened later in the year. It comes as no surprise that studies done by Barglow, Vaughn, & Molitor (1987); Belsky & Rovine (1988); Vaughn, Gove, & Egeland, (1980) , as quoted by Egeland & Heister (1995), reported that entry of infants before 12 months of age to child day care is linked to increased risk of insecure-avoidant attachment. Assessments were based on Ainsworth’s Strange Situation (Ainswoth, Blehar, Water, & Wall, 1978) to measure the infant-mother attachment. While these children might not reject attention from parents, they also did not seek comfort, showing no preference between a parent and a complete stranger.