His mother was a teacher, and his father a wheelwright. His education was fulfilled with government schools. At age 16, he joined Nelson Collegiate School. Later on, he was awarded a scholarship for the University of New Zealand for his excelling intelligence, where he began in the Canterbury College. On 1893, he graduated with Mathematics and Physical Science degree.
Bohr and his family grew up in an atmosphere that helped the development of his knowledge. His father was largely responsible for awakening his interest in physics while, his mother came from a family well known in the field of education. After Gammelholm Grammar School in 1903, he entered Copenhagen University where He won a gold medal from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences for his theoretical analysis of vibrations of water jets as a means of determining surface tension. He received his Master's degree from the University of Copenhagen in 1909 and his doctorate in 1911 with a thesis Studies on the electron theory of metals. Bohr went to England to study with Sir J.J. Thomson at Cambridge.
Niels Bohr Born in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 7, 1885 to mother Ellen Adler, and father, Christian Bohr, Niels would later go on to be a Nobel Prize winner in the category of physics. He attended the University of Copenhagen, where he studied physics. In 1911 he received his doctorate and left to England to study under J.J. Thomson, the man who discovered the electron. In 1912 he married Margrethe Norlund. Together they had 6 sons, one of which followed in his father’s footsteps and won his own Nobel Prize in physics in 1975 Bohr’s main focus was working on a way to understand the structure of an atom.
Ernest Rutherford Ernest Rutherford was born in Spring Grove in New Zealand on August 30th, 1871. His parents, James and Martha, had emigrated from Great Britain and believed their children, numbering 12, should have proper education. At the age of 16 Ernest won his first scholarship to Nelson College, where he was a popular student. He followed with a second scholarship to Canterbury College in Christchurch, and by 1893 had graduated with first class honours in Physics and Mathematics. Rutherford stayed at Canterbury for a further year to study Physics in more detail, particularly how iron reacted in magnetic fields.
* He and Rose had a son, Sir George Paget Thomson, Emeritus Professor of Physics at London University, and a daughter. * Thomson taught mathematics and physics at Cambridge, succeeding Lord Rayleigh as professor of physics at the age of 27. * He became director of Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory to do research from 1884 through 1919. * For his involvement in the scientific community, he was appointed president of the Royal Society, a position he maintained from 1915 through 1920. * He was invited to be professor of natural philosophy at the Royal Institute of Great Britain from 1905 to 1918.
Ernest Rutherford also known as The Lord Rutherford of Nelson, born on the 30/08/1871, was born in Brightwater, Tasman District, New Zealand and is renowned as the father of nuclear physics and is considered the greatest experimentalist. He succeeded in differentiating between alpha and beta radiation, at McGill University. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work into the disintegration of elements and the chemistry of radioactive substances. In addition, he set forth the laws of radioactive decay. He completed his first degree at the University of New Zealand and began teaching at a school in New Zealand, where he taught unruly pupils.
With Thomson's recommendation McGill University in Montreal accepted him as a professor of chemistry. Upon performing many experiments and finding new discoveries at McGill university, Rutherford was rewarded the nobel prize for chemistry. In 1907 he succeded Arthur Schuster at the University of Manchester. He began persuing alpha particles in 1908. With the help of Geiger he found the number of alpha particles emitted per second by a gram of radium.
MAX PLANCK Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, a German theoretical physicist, won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918 at the age of sixty. Planck is often referred to as the father of Quantum Theory thanks to his revolutionary discoveries regarding light and energy and how his discoveries led to the creation and growth of the Quantum Theory. In the early 1900 ‘s Planck theorized that oscillating atoms absorb and emit energy not in a continuous fashion, but rather, in discrete packets of light that would later be known as “quanta” and eventually “photons”. Furthermore, he created an equation that could model the energy of each photon.  Planck’s work opened the doors of discovery for other physicists such as Einstein to build upon these theories and complete the quantum theory we now know and love to learn about.
James Thomson was the professor of engineering in Belfast and later was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Glasgow. He taught his son mathematics at a very early age and as a result, William Thomson became an accomplished mathematican beyond that of universities. William Thomson enterd Glasgow University at the age of ten. That was not as uncommon as it is today because back then the universities were competing for the best junior pupils. In 1838, when Thomson was 14, he began what people today would consider university work and when he was 15, his essay called An Essay on the Figure of the Earth won him a gold medal from the University of Glasgow.
Through excellent work in Canterbury College, Ernest won a national scholarship to the University of New Zealand. In this University he got his masters degree in mathematics and physics. He was then ready to put his skills to work and apply his studies to create something great. At the age of 23, in 1895 Ernest left to England. In England he studied at the University of Cambridge for three years.