Criminal behaviour, regardless of manner, involves use of barbaric methodologies to obtain symbolic or material resources. Criminal behavior results from methodical processes that involve intricate interactions among isolated, societal, and environmental factors in people’s lives. Criminality constitutes strategic mannerisms characterized by apathy to misery inflicted on others, egocentricity and depressed self-control. Habitual criminal behaviour seeks to satisfy the offender’s desires for material prestige, power or pleasurable feelings regardless to damage inflicted to victim or society. Such behaviors extend mistrust, fuel prejudice, and largely corrupt social cohesion.
(Sociology: The Core) Psychopaths and sociopaths fall into this deviant category since their lives result in the commission of crimes and the hurting of other people. Crime is considered to be an act of deviance that is prohibited by law. The distinguishing property of crime is that people who violate the law are liable to be arrested, tried, pronounced guilty, and deprived of their lives, liberty, and property. (Sociology: The Core) Because of deviance and the non-acceptance of social norms, we have had to put a criminal justice system in place to handle these issues. Even though crime has gone down... ... middle of paper ... ...http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/sociopath http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/psychopath http://cassiopaea.com/cassiopaea/psychopath_2.htm http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/july-2012/focus-on-psychopathy http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/july-2012/psychopathy-an-important-forensic-concept-for-the-21st-century Sociology: The Core 10th edition, Michael Hughes, Carolyn J. Kroehler Understanding Psychology, 10th edition, Charles G. Morris, Albert A. Maistro Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition: DSM-5 by American Psychiatric Association (May 27, 2013) DSM-5 Clinical Cases by John W. Barnhill, M.D., John W. and M.D.
Thus, this research may provide a possible remedy to a costly societal problem due not only the actions of criminal psychopaths but criminal offenders in general . However, the neural mechanism behind this empathetic deficit is still poorly understood. One common hypothesis to explain empathetic deficit is an inability to process emotional stimuli, especially expressive faces, in psychopaths. Kawasaki et al. (2001) explored the relationship between emotional sensory stimuli and the prefrontal cortex.
Becker (1963) Becker theorised that the term 'deviant' is applied when an actor (individual) violates the mores and values created by society. The label deviant is usually applied by a figure of authority or high social status, and provokes a negative social reaction. The same reaction that can be associated to an act of law breaking. Society struggles to differentiate between 'crime' and 'deviance',The two words are sometimes used interchangeably. Crime is an act that breaks 'criminal law'; resulting in formal punishment, whereas deviance is simply an act that is perceived as 'wrong'.
Strain theories of criminal behaviour have been amongst the most important and influential in the field of criminology. Taking a societal approach, strain theories have sought to explain deficiencies in social structure that lead individuals to commit crime (Williams and McShane 2010). Strain theories operate under the premise that there is a societal consensus of values, beliefs, and goals with legitimate methods for achieving success. When individuals are denied access to legitimate methods for achieving success, the result is anomie or social strain. This often leads an individual to resort to deviant or criminal means to obtain the level of success that they are socialized to pursue.
Overall, in this paper, I will explain my disagreement with Kant’s doctrine on punishment due to the fact that I believe some forms of Kant’s punishment, are a violation of humanity. In the articles Critique of Political Reason and Metaphysics of Morals, Kant explains and believes that punishment must always correspond and is proportional to the crime. Kant defines crime as “a transgression of public law that makes someone who commits it unfit to be a citizen” (Kant 1996). In society, if a crime is committed, one is usually punished. Kant believes that the guilty deserve punishment and that punishment should be proportional to the guilt.
Whereas conflict theorists believe that a society’s inequalities are reproduced in its definitions of deviance, so that less powerful groups are more likely to be deemed deviant and criminalized. In Merton’s structural strain theory claims that the tension or strain among socially acceptable... ... middle of paper ... ...ead to these patterns of criminal behavior. There is an ongoing debate about the role of punishment in the criminal justice system, a collection of social institutions that create and enforce laws. Deterrence is a method to punish that depend on the threat of a strict penalty to discourage individuals from committing the crimes. Retribution is a method to punish that stresses vengeance or payback for the crime as the suitable goal.
The Contribution of the Labelling Theory to Our Understanding of Crime and Deviancy We can call a label, or define it as; a mark, name, or even badge. Something is only deviant, or becomes deviant because someone has been successful in labelling it as, deviancy is ambiguous, definitions differ from society to society or even culture to culture. Calling something deviant is a reaction to a type of behaviour. The labelling theory is very complex, it asks why some people committing crimes are named deviant but others are not. Labelling theorists believe when you label offenders as criminals, yobs, this has negative consequences, deepening and worsening the criminal behaviour.
Criminal Motivation in Robert Agnew's General Strain Theory Robert Agnew’s General Strain Theory (GST) argues that strain or stress is the major source of criminal motivation. He expands upon Merton’s Anomie Theory of strain and stress to include several causes of strain or stress. Agnew categorizes 3 types of strain that produce deviance: the failure to achieve positively valued goals, the loss of positive stimuli, and the introduction of negative stimuli. There are several different actions that can be taken to correct the strain in order to curb deviance, including exercise, counseling, and advocacy programs. Furthermore, we will also look at how this relates to domestic violence.
Deviance; when people hear the term, usually constitutes images of criminal behaviour and other such negative notions. However, deviance, defined in Elements of Sociology, simply means to “stray from the norm or the usual” (Steckley and Letts 2013:143). But what are norms, who sets them and how does one stray away with it? While there are numerous amounts of theory in regards to social deviance, I have chosen a select few under the concept of social constructionism. Although deviance is not necessarily wrong in itself, using social constructionism, labelling theory, and primary deviance, demonstrates the adverse effects within an individual once internalized with an image as a deviant.