The two important psychoanalytic theories on human development are psychosexual development theory by Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development theory. Many researchers use these two major approaches to analyze the human development in different stages of life. Since Freud’s approach was the foundation of Erikson’s psychosocial theory, there are many similarities between them. Even though they are both focusing on phases of life, there are still some differences on the definitions and ideas of life stages. In this paper, I will concentrate on Freud and Erikson’s ideas of different stages of human development because these two approaches always come together and they are mostly overlapping. Yet, there are divergences and transformations between all the stages.
Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia in the year of 1856. Crain said that Freud was smart, so his family fully supported him to continue his studies (137). Boring points out, in Freud’s early life, he discovered the medical usage of cocaine (433). Later, his marriage and parenthood brought him contentment, therefore, it was understood that he “was strengthened in support of his own theory of sexuality and in withstanding the odium sexuale that was directed towards him” as his sexual wants to male dominance and to monogamy were conservative and fundamental (Boring 434). In the year of 1902, another famous psychologist was born in Frankfurt, Germany, Erik Erikson, but he was not a psychologist firstly. He was known that he did not graduate from high school because he was not interested in school education (Woolfolk 67). However, the event of meeting with Sigmund Freud changed his life, and he started to study child psychoanalysis (Woolfolk 67). The most...
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... of ego integrity versus despair. As time goes by, they lose their jobs, physical strengths, spouses, and friends (Crain 171). The mission for this stage is to bind together all the experiences they have and accept the death (Gross 63). They will be more enjoy their life if they did it, rather than fear death every day.
In short, both approaches showed different stages and their own missions in the life cycle of human development. Freud’s approach is more on sexual behavior and the characteristics that we born with, while Erikson’s theory is based on what we are nurtured and taught to be. They both help us to understand the basic idea of identity formation. However, there is weakness of the theory, there is no standardized conditions that can prove whether people has succeeded in a particular stage, it is really depending on personal levels of self-understanding.
Erik Erikson developed eight psychosocial stages that occur through life. These stages help parents of younger children understand what the child is thinking and why they are acting the way that they do. For a person to become a well-rounded adult they need to succeed in each level. This essay will discuss the first six stages into young adulthood.
Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia (which is now Czech Republic) on May 6, 1856. He was born to a Jewish Galician parents and he was the first born child in a family of eight. He is well known as the Austrian neurologist and due to his studies he is infamously known as the father of psychoanalysis. He received his medical degree in 1881 where he was qualified as a doctor of medicine at Vienna University. This is where he began his studies on cerebral palsy, aphasia, and other neuroanatomy topics. Around 1886 Freud set up his own private practice in the treatment of psychological disorders. Freud then married Martha Bernay in 1886. In 1908 Freud’s became
Sigmund Freud, known as one of the most influential psychologists the world has seen, was born in 1856 in the city of Freiberg in the Austro-Hungarian Empire of Moravian. Freiberg was a city of trees and nature, and Freud always felt attached to his surroundings. His father bore two children in his first marriage, twenty years prior to Sigmund’s birth. His first wife later died, and he re-married. Sigmund was born from his father’s second wife, Amelia, and she later bore seven more children (Chiriac).
Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856, in Austria (?). His family moved to Vienna in 1860, and that is where Freud spent, mostly, the remainder of his life (?). Freud is considered the father of Psychoanalysis, the first acknowledged personality theory (?). His theory suggest that a person’s personality is controlled by their unconscious which is established in their early childhood. The psychoanalytic theory is made up of three different elements interacting to make up the human personality: the id, the ego, and the superego (?).
Erik Erikson, a German-born American who is a well known developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst, established the grand theory of psychosocial development. Throughout his theory, persistently stresses that one’s personality advances non-stop throughout the duration of several differential stages. Erikson’s theory also goes in depth to explain the immense impact of social experiences in one’s lifespan. The main element that is produced from his theory of psychosocial development is essentially ego identity. Ego identity can be defined as a sense of self, or better, the knowledge of one’s self that forms through a process within all social interaction. Contemporary
This approach has become the stimulus for a number of similar theories which share the same assumptions on psychological development, yet differ in detail. (Gross, R, 2007) Erik Erikson, a neo-freudian himself accepted Freud’s theory but whereas the psychodynamic approach focuses on five main stages of development until adulthood, Erikson theorised that development is lifelong and continues throughout life until death. (Psychology for A Level 2000)
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Moravia, which was then part of the Austrian Empire and is now in the Czech Republic. He spent most of his life in Vienna, from where he fled, in 1937, when the Nazis invaded. Neither Freud (being Jewish) or his theories were very popular with the Nazis and he escaped to London where he died in 1939.
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are two theorists that “believed the major determinants of personality are not conscious…[and] are the result of conflict through the various stages of development” (Cloninger 2013). Both theorists described different stages a person goes through during development. Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development were greatly influenced by Freud’s psychosexual stages of development. “Erikson’s theory builds on that of Freud, presuming hat biology provides the motivation of personality through the psychosexual stages that Freud outlined. However biological sexual energy is not the only consideration.” (Cloninger 2013). Rather than focusing on a person’s libido, also known as the person’s sexual-psychic energy, as the driving force behind personality, Erikson described how social influences could have an affect on a person’s personality.
Erik Erikson was a psychologist specializing in post Freudian studies. Many ideas and foundations of his theories came from the Freud way of thinking. Erickson could be considered a neo Freudian, someone who is influenced by and still practices elements of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis. Erik Erikson’s development theory expanded on Freud’s original five stages of development, consisting of a new eight psychosocial stages of development known as The Life Cycle. The ego and sexual development are a large focus for Erik Erikson’s stages. In each of his stages there are two main terms for the child to learn and they are always opposites of each other. In addition to psychologists today still using Erikson’s stages of development for assessments on patients, research is still being conducted to prove the validity of Erikson’s design. His work is important to various areas of psychology including development and personality.
His belief was that each human developed their own personality through a series of stages and these stages developed due to the social experiences that one experienced through life. According to Erikson, there are eight stages and each stage centers around a conflict that has to be resolved. Under Erikson’s theory, if conflict or crisis is not resolved, then the outcome will be more crisis and struggles with that issue later on in life (Domino & Affonso, 2011).
Developmental psychology is an area of research dedicated to the understanding of child-development. Throughout history many theories have been used to attempt to explain the complex process. Two of those theorists, Freud and Erikson, were instrumental in creating a foundation for child-psychology to build on. From a Freudian perspective, human development is centered on psychosexual theory. Psychosexual theory indicates that maturation of the sex drives underlies stages of personality development. Alternatively, Erikson is considered a neo-freudian scholar who developed psychosocial theory. In Erikson models there are eight major conflicts that occur during the course of an individual’s life.
A theory is a set of statements that describes, explains and predicts human behavior. Development of behavior starts during the prenatal stage up to late adulthood. Three theories that help describe behavior are the perspective of Freud, Erikson and Paget’s. All three theories have several similarities as well as differences. By comparing I hope to gain a better understanding of all three theories.
Freud was born in May 6, 1856 in the Czech Republic. He attended Spurling Gymnasium. At Spurling, he was first in his class and graduated Summa Cum Laude. After studying medicine at the University of Vienna, he gained respect while working as a physician. Freud and a friend were introduced to a case study that resulted in no cause, but they found that having the patient talk about her experiences had a calming effect on the symptoms. That was considered to be the beginning of the study of psychology.
Erikson’s developmental theory was very detailed as compared to Freud. His theory describes the influence of social experiences in one’s life; however Freud described development based on sexuality. Another major difference between Freud and Erikson’s developmental theory is the end result of the stages. Freud believed that when fixation occurs in one stage, the problems occur associated with that stage would be permanent. However Erikson claims that the outcome of a particular stage is temporary and can be altered by experiences in later years.