In the shadows of the ownership society: Homeless children and their families. In S. Books', (Ed. ), Invisible children in the society and its schools (pp. 39-62). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
According to Donald Hernandez (Hernandez, 2011), "Consequently, the children in poor families are in double jeopardy: They are more likely to have low reading test scores and, at any reading-skill level, they are less likely to graduate from high school." Growing up in poverty means there is very limited resources available to help climb out of poverty. Resources such as housing, clothing, and food are basic needs that have to be fulfilled for a child to grow up properly (Shaffer, 2014, pp158). When these basic needs are no... ... middle of paper ... ...t.org/homeless-facts/# Gwinnett County Public School (2010, June). Education for Homeless Children and Youth.
According to the National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth (NAEHCY) reported that the U.S. Department of Education collected data stating “during the 2008-2009 school year that 954,914 homeless children and youth were enrolled in public schools.” This problem affects the child socially, mentally, and most importantly academically. The National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth (NAEHCY) defines Homelessness “is a lack of permanent housing resulting from extreme poverty and/or unsafe or unstable living environments” (NAEHCY, 2011, p. 2). In the year 2004, it was required that all states were to report to CSPR (Consolidated State Performance Report) of data collected of children and youth enrolled in any educational services (Bowman, Dukes, Moore, 2012, p. 6). The table presented below shows reports the school years of 2004-2010. Number of Homeless Students Reported by States in the CSPR 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 655,591 906,680* 679,724 794,617 956,914 939,903 The National Center on Family Homelessness (NCFH) conducted research and collected data and found during a three year research of CSPR reports.
Low–income families usually have limited education which decreases their capability to provide a motivating and encouraging environment for their children. For example, children from low-income families learn and speak the language that is used at home which often is not English and are less likely to be well read then their better off counterparts. The situation of poverty is a repeated cycle that reoccurs because the parents do not recognize the signi... ... middle of paper ... ... 2012. Ferguson, HB , S Bovaird , and MP Mueller . "The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children."
Living conditions can affect their education and achievement. School attendance becomes irregular and often leads to transfers to new schools. Failed attempts to make friends may lead the students to give up and not bother. Children often view each other as equal, no matter their economic status, but when they reach a certain age they become aware of those differences. A child of poverty may look at the way another student is dressed and feel insecure about themselves because their clothes aren’t as nice.
The schools are forced to cut back on programs such as extracurricular activities that are suppose to encourage students to be active, or they would have to cut back on supplies where in some cases there are not enough textbooks for each student to have his or her own. The U.S. Department of Education also stated that teachers that are less paid and have less years teaching are often the ones dealing with the students in poverty. (U.S. Department of Education). This only prolongs the problem with children receiving the proper education. If they are taught by teachers who don’t know what they are teaching or those who don’t have enough experience, then the students are not going to learn the correct information or any information at all.
Web. 07 Dec. 2013. Rog, Debra J., PhD, Westat Rockville, MD, and John C. Buckner, PhD. "Homeless Families and Children." 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research: Homeless Families and Children.
In 2000, Delores Pena studied the barriers that can occur in diverse populations. She found that disadvantaged parents often see school communities as part of a parent clique. Parents, especially those who are of low income, do not feel comfortable participating in schools because they feel that only parents who are in the clique are respected by teachers (Pena, 2000). Furthermore, the low income parents may feel that these clique parents look down on them. Whether these feelings are only perceived or if they are true, they still present a barrier that is hard to overcome.
Neurocognitive impacts for children of poverty and neglect. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/newsletter/2012/07 Schmalleger, F. (2009). Chapter 8. In Criminology today (5th ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson.
Outgrowing the pain: A book for and about adults abused as children. New York: Dell. McLanahan, S., & Sandefur, G. D. (1994). Growing up with a single parent: What hurts, what helps. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.