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Parthenon Essay

explanatory Essay
1737 words
1737 words
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Ancient Greece is renowned for it 's cultural developments that ultimately laid a foundation for modern Western tradition. Their profound innovations in art and architecture has greatly influenced the development of the world and will continue to echo through time. There is no better reflection of their architectural ambition and genius than the Parthenon. "The Parthenon, constructed between 447 and 432 BCE on the Athenian Acropolis, stands as the most lavish, technically refined, and programmatically cohesive temple on the Greek mainland, a fitting commemoration of the Athenians ' spectacular and unexpected victories in the Persian Wars." This colossal structure was not only built in honor of the goddess Athena, believed to have aided Greece …show more content…

In this essay, the author

  • Describes ancient greece's cultural developments that laid the foundation for modern western tradition. the parthenon is the most lavish, technically refined, and programmatically cohesive temple on the greek mainland.
  • Explains that pericles guided athens through a newly developed democratic rule while philosophers, artists, and scientists flourished with fresh perspectives and ideals about the world.
  • Explains that iktinus was chosen to design the temple and supervise its construction. kallikrates voted to place the new building on the same site as the unfinished marble temple.
  • Explains that the temple is peripteral, with eight doric columns at each end and 17 on the flanks, and a stylobate three steps high. the temple veers from the typical greek post-and-lintel format of definite horizontal and vertical lines.
  • Opines that the unique architectural plan of the parthenon is magnificent in its own right, but that is just the beginning of it's beauty.
  • Explains that the ornament of the parthenon began with ninety-two metopes, which display elaborate battle scenes for greek mythology.
  • Describes the ionic frieze, which began on the west side of the temple and extended along the other sides leading to the east and creating a continuous low relief carving.
  • Proposes that the frieze is actually displaying an athenian myth in which the athenoin king erechtheus's daughters sacrifice themselves for the greater good of the city.
  • Explains that the inclined roof left triangular spaces at the end of the temple. the west pediment shows a rivalry between athena and poseidon competing for the patronage
  • Explains that athena parthenos' extravagant gold and ivory statue was housed in the temple's cella. modern copies and documented descriptions provide clues to its appearance, but nothing remains of the statue today.
  • Explains that the parthenon was completed in 432 bce and athens was crowned by the most perfect temple in all of greece. the delian traesury was established as a means of protection for the greeks
  • Explains that the parthenon was in good condition until the nineteenth century, when it was converted into a church by the christians of byzantine in honor of the virgin mary.

At this point, the temple had gone through various hardships. It was a temple dedicated to Athena until being converted into a province under the Roman Empire; this made Athens lose its formal glory. In the 5th century, the Romans raided the Parthenon temple, and its statue of the Athena image was stolen by the Romans who took it to Constantinople where it was destroyed in 1204 AD during crusades. Even after the Roman looting, the Parthenon was still in a good shape and was converted into a church during the 5th century by the Christians of Byzantine in honor of the Virgin Mary/ Parthenon Maria. Its name was also changed to the church of Theotokos. Converting a temple into a church showed that the Parthenon was still in a good condition, however, its interior was slightly restructured, for instance, some columns and marble statues were removed. In addition, motifs and other statues that depicted more than one God were removed and destroyed by the Christians. E Parthenon was a church for more than 250 until the 14the century, when it was converted into a mosque by the ottomans who were Muslims. The ottomans managed to maintain the Parthenon well until the late 1600s. Later, they were attacked by Venetians, led by Murosini who attacked Athens. The Athenians and the ottomans had fortified Acropolis for over a century. The Parthenon was used warehouse for gunpowder and when it was hit from a mortal that was fired by the Venetians, the highly explosive gunpowder exploded and the larger part of the building was destroyed. Later, Morosini and his army plundered the Parthenon, looting the important objects and destroying others, leaving it as a partial ruin that is seen in the present day. Most of the depictions and sculptures were

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