The late 19th century gave birth to a strong oralist movement. Oralism refers to the desire to educate deaf and hard of hearing persons through the practice of spoken language by means of lip reading and the mimicking of breathing techniques and mouth shapes. This movement made many blows to Deaf culture including the vote to ban sign language in the education of the deaf by the International Congress of the Deaf in Milan. It is worth noting that this decision was made at a time when actual Deaf delegates were not allowed to vote. The decision by the Congress also discouraged Deaf community members from teaching.
Some of the consequences of the Milan Conference include the banning of the use of signed languages in the classroom and making it so deaf could not educate other deaf. Which eliminated the blossoming bilingual education programs that were starting to emerge. Now that the use of signed language was taboo in classrooms the auditory-speech method of teaching became the only way. Which puts us in the sad state of education of the deaf we are in today. Because of the focus on speech and spoken language many other aspects of education are overlooked and not understood by a deaf student.
According to most imp... ... middle of paper ... ...e is all they need, and the rest will be all up to them. If this chance is not given to them then as mentioned before, cochlear implants will not cure the deaf person, it will only confuse them and raise one question in their heads, "Where do I really fit in?" Works Cited "American Sign Language (sidebar)." Issues & Controversies On File: n. pag. Issues & Controversies.
Most jobs won’t hire a deaf person because they don’t think they are able to do the job even if they are more than capable, typically companies don’t want to accommodate or are unaware on how to accommodate the deaf or hard of hearing. The National Association of the deaf can help inform you on what to do and legally what is your next step. On their website, it’ll say that deaf people must have, “visual alerts for audible alarms and messages, captioned audiovisual information.” Those are just a few accommodations that every deaf person. The next step if a person is discriminated would be to contact Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and it will be
(Hartford, 2017) After the Deaf began to flourish by expanding their community in creating clubs, schools, and deaf safe zones where they could gather, in the 1860s Alexander Graham Bell started to spread the belief that those who can speak and hear are inherently superior. He wanted to wipe the U.S. clean of what he thought to be hereditary deafness, going as far as to strongly advocate against deaf intermarriage and removing Deaf faculty from schools. (Padden and Malzkuhn, 2007) Later in 1880, delegates met at the request of Bell to discuss deaf education. As a result, a resolution passed that encouraged spoken language, thus banning sign language in schools. This only ended in 1980 during the International Congress on Education of the Deaf when it was declared that deaf children had the right to use the mode of communication that met their needs and successfully overturned Congress’ 1880 ban.
Many people, including A. G. Bell, were opposed to Deaf marrying other Deaf. Bell said that sign language "causes the intermarriage of deaf-mutes and the propagation of their physical defect" (Lane, 1996:382). Bell also claimed that society was condoning the spread of "a defective race of human beings" by allowing Deaf people to socialize with each other (Jankowski, 1997:53). Since others too saw deafness as a physical defect, they agreed with Bell and started adopting oral schools for the Deaf where signed language is prohibited. If oral schools ended up being the only schools for Deaf, then their signed languages would have diminished along with a part of their heritage and culture.
This issue is important because if you try to force the Deaf to hear they might not grow because they will have no form of communication to use with other people. Even though the doctors might say to not use ASL, this will greatly hinder your child's well being in the long run. I learned a lot about Deaf people, ASL, and/or Deaf Culture after reading this book. Deaf people are normal just like anybody else and they should not be treated any differently. Some people treat Deafness as a disease that needs to be cured, but it's not.
The movie through Deaf Eyes is a video describing deaf history in America and its humble start and all the challenges deaf people faced during history. In the beginning, deaf people had no real formal language until Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc started the first deaf school. With Gallaudet paving the way to try to teach deaf people sign language, deaf schools started to crop up all over the country. As time went on they would be decriminalized even by the government who would prevent them from working in the government. After an endless amount of support to repeal the ban of deaf people from working the government, they decided to lift the ban.
That is why in mainstream society, the quality of being deaf is seen as a disability rather than something to be praised. The common view of deafness is that it is simply a person who cannot hear and “is deficient in some way because he or she may not be able to communicate by ‘speaking’ or ‘hearing”, we capitalize on what a deaf person cannot do rather than what they can (“Understanding Deaf Culture”). Carla A. Halpern says: “We as a hearing people tend to pity deaf people, or, if they succeed in a hearing world admire them for overcoming a severe handicap. We tend to look at signing as an inferior substitute for” real” communication… We applaud deaf people, such as Marlee Matlin who use their voices to show us how far they have come from the grips of their disability” (Halpern). Though some of the hearing community might take on an unknowingly negative approach on deafness due to a lack of knowledge, for those in the deaf community, their hearing loss is not a burden or a disability, but instead an important component of their identity and culture (Sanger-Katz).
Even at the turn of the century, there were no attempts in any form to present to the Native American students with a culturally appropriate education. These schools promoted Native Americans to dress and speak like their Caucasian American counterparts. The persecution and assimilation of the Native American to adopt the English language has been recognized since the late 1960’s as a huge issue. Two of the largest tribes that have been documented the most in history as being subjected to such treatment are the Cherokee and the Navajo. These two tribes have recognized the rising issue of a dwindling supply of native language speakers.