The Constitution guaranteed it as a freedom to them, and white slaves were virtually nonexistent. Slavery was so deeply engrained as a “black race” attribute, that it came to be used as a descriptor to further lower the status of African Americans. Free of these racial tensions, whites seemed to enjoy freedom without conflict. However, in reality, not all whites had access to equal freedom. “Freedom” often meant the ability to have equal opportunity, as the purpose of immigration to the colonies was often based on a desire for economic independence.
Repatriation: Africa in the Horizon The idea of the repatriation of Blacks to Africa is a theme that runs deeply within Rastafarian beliefs. Although the concept of Ethiopia being the true and glorious home of all Blacks is imbedded in Rastafarian beliefs, the idea dates much farther back in history. Dating back to the African slave trade beginning in the eighteenth century, Ethiopianism has influenced the Black race dramatically. People such as Marcus Garvey have raised the world’s awareness of the oppression of the Black race and his solution of repatriation. Garvey believed that if Blacks could have a land of their own, where they could prosper and gain power then the world would have to respect this nation and it’s people.
Garvey and the Starline shipping company, with the most looked at focus, to transport African Americans to Africa for the establishment of a nation state. However Dubois pledged otherwise, countering idea of Garvey, with the notion that, “Hey, us as African Americans, we built this country, we need to stay here and fight for what’s ours.” Dubois had organized conferences, ruling black people need
African leaders such as Julius Nyerere from Tanzania, Jomo Kenyatta from Kenya, Robert Sobukwe from South Africa and Kwame Nkrumah from Gold Coast currently Ghana. The main purpose of Pan-African movement was to establish independence for African nations though consolidating efforts and uniting all black throughout Africa (Francis, 2006). The efforts to decolonize Africa makes them autonomous was a step to the right direction, and many African leaders believed that they were going to succeed an... ... middle of paper ... ...ries still lag behind in terms of development because they lack technical know-how and other necessary facilities to enhance development (Mentan, 2010). Lastly, even after decolonization, Africa still experience poor leadership which is has led to civil wars and instability in different nations such as Somalia and Southern Sudan. In conclusion, decolonization refers to the process where nations try to establish and have autonomy to make their own political and economic decisions without interference from external pressure.
Beginning with the African slaves, this paper covers the musically genres created over time containing West African elements, as well as covering the ways in which the Puerto Rican society influenced the music as well as how the music effected the society. This paper will also include the ways in which African descendants in Puerto Rico [musicians] would rise to fame despite existing in an era of open racism. Ultimately, explaining how the music and the people go hand in hand. In analyzing the influence of Africa in Puerto Rico, it would be irresponsible to refuse to acknowledge the initial introduction of African slaves to the island of Puerto Rico that by which serves as the main vessel of contact and cultural integration. By the turn of the 18th century, inhabitants of the island where being substituted for African slaves due to the high death rates resulting from “ war, disease, slavery, emigration,” etc.
Frazier’s beliefs of black assimilation collided with Melville Herskovits idea that you can link black people to Africa in context of the rich cultural land and tradition, as stated in “The Myth of Negro Past”. Two key points of Frazier’s argument that lead to a “death” of African religion were: difficulty of the transatlantic passage, youth’s inability to retain culture. These points were undermined by Wilmore’s explanation of Vodun, and the adaptability of religion. In these points Frazier believes that all slaves were essentially a blank slate that had no retention, or recollecti... ... middle of paper ... ...white people were the change-makers and shapers of Vodun, when actually black people adapted their religion to suite oppressive conditions. As time went on “Voodoo had become less of a religion than a political association [which was] and inherent characteristic of black religion from the slave period” (46).
I am persuaded that a focus on agency rather than victimization, not only gives people of african descendants credit but also challenges the idea that oppressors were the ones that free those who were oppressed. In addition to a new perspective on slavery that is not often taught. Understanding people of African descent historically is understanding the basis of modernity. A wise African Diaspora II professor once stated, “history did not just happen to Black people, Black people made history.”
In the absence of freedom, the slaves were able to reach beyond the confines of their masters and create a vibrant social and cultural life. 3. Americans, especially African Americans believed that The Declaration of Independence, which claimed human equality, was a direct contradiction to slavery. 4. Africans did not just become slaves in America during the Atlantic slave trade; a majority of Africans were actually kept as slaves in Africa.
Black Consciousness is an example of culture as a strong programme. Ubuntu is another crucial cultural structure that consists of the African culture and their way of life. When conducting research in history, personal feelings should be taken into account to try understanding the meanings, being African Societies and the shaping of resistance to colonization and the new South African society. Colonisation eradicated all African cultural structures (myths, beliefs, values) leading to the belief that colonization was a cultural process. African people never ceased to stop claiming their cultural beliefs and values and African intellectuals called for the recognition of the African culture structure shaping African societies as well as realizing that transculturation had taken place.
Because of this takeover, imperialism brought both positive and negative effects to Africa. One major factor in beginning imperialism in Africa was the end of the slave trade because this was how Europe was making most of their money during the 18th century. If revenue was not being brought in through the slave trade, other “products” (formerly humans) had to be traded. Greed was why Europeans could overlook the “disease, political instability, lack of transportation, and the generally unhealthy climate” (Duiker & Spielvogel 620) of Africa. If some of these off-putting factors such as transportation could be changed by the Europeans occupying Africa, then why not occupy it?