They have also high melting point and they are poor conductors. Bonding in most of the minerals is largely ionic. (***) Thirdly, in the metallic bond, electrons are free to float about the metal crystalline structure. This type of bond occurs only between metals like gold. The metals lose their other electrons easily.
For the past three years, the United States has been the world's fastest-growing hydrocarbon producer, and the trend is not likely to stop anytime soon. U.S. natural gas production has risen by 25 percent since 2010, and the only reason it has temporarily stalled is that investments are required to facilitate further growth. Having already outstripped Russia as the world's largest gas producer, by the end of the decade, the United States will become one of the world's largest gas exporters, fundamentally changing pricing and trade patterns in global energy markets. (Morse, 2014)
With a population more than 15 % of the world and high rates of economic growth , India has become one of the important consumer of energy resources. In the year 2006, India was the sixth largest oil consumption country of the world. The worldwide credit and financial crises have slowed India’s significant economic growth especially in its manufacturing sector. Due to this crunch, the GDP growth rates have turn down in 2007 from 9.3 % to 5.3 % in the last quarter of 2008. Despite of this slow economic growth, India's energy demand continues to rise.
Despite the limited amount of petroleum and natural gas, the addition of shale oil and tar sands to our energy reserves will increase the longevity of fossil fuel use in society. Alternative sources of energy must become more widely used, or else the earth will become uninhabitable due to the effects of global warming sooner than the fossil fuel reserves can be depleted. Works Cited Marshak, Stephen. Earth: Portrait of a Planet. W.W. Norton & Company; New York, 2001.
The majority of new wells are already hydraulically fracked (Mooney). This is due to the ability of the fracking to reach those sources. Fracking can be used to obtain petroleum, natural gas, geothermal, and any other non-solid fuels. Natural gas is a much cleaner and more abundant fuel source than coal. Using fracking, five-hundred ... ... middle of paper ... ...n the United States; it will lower the costs of the fuel for the American people.
The fact that the United States holds the potential to gain full energy independence could be not only monumental for the country in a global context but also extremely beneficial to the citizens. Less dependence on foreign exports could mean a healthier future for the country. The energy security potential of fracking, balanced with the environmental risks, make it important that it not be a yes-no question, but rather find a solution to satisfy it in a greater context.
Overcoming this, and continuously looking for ways to make the extraction process easier, is the keys to truly developing this industry. The LNG Carrier industry faces several palpable longterm risks. The first and foremost is alternative energy sources. Alternative modes of energy like solar or nuclear, are becoming more and more attractive as climate science is coming up with more dangerous conclusions. Even though LNG is more environmentally friendly than oil drilling, it leaves a great deal to be desired when it comes to ecological consciousness.
Shale Gas refers to natural gas trapped within sedimentary shale rock formations and is found abundantly in many regions of the world. Recent advances in technology such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’) have meant that access to this valuable resource is now viable. Onshore oil and gas exploration is the best, most transformative energy story since the transition from coal to oil a century ago. This is because what we are getting is a far cleaner and more economic source of energy than its predecessors or competitors. Even though gas is a fossil fuel in replacing coal for electricity - which is the global goal - it means that we can reduce CO2 emissions by more than 50 per cent.
Secondary recovery is when water and gas injection are used to transfer the oil from the reservoir to the surface. Enhanced oil recovery, or tertiary recovery, focuses on increasing the reservoir pressure and therefore improving the flow rate. Because so many of the wells in the United States have not been recovered using tertiary recovery, this is a growing field where research and development is constantly taking place. Enhanced oil recovery is an environmentally safe, economical, and quickly developing field in petroleum engineering that can broken down into thermal recovery, gas injection and chemical injection. Thermal Recovery Thermal recovery is the process of injecting steam into the reservoir so that the viscosity is lowered, flow rate is increased and the profit can be maximized.
We have also to consider the fact that big oil companies will now have to take into account the environment more than in the past and contribute to Carbon Emission Reductions. I really think that this point will not be a limit because Exxon has the competence to be better than its competitors to manage this difficulty and shift in the right way if these challenges are anticipated. Indeed, the big oil companies are currently making long term financial plans under the assumption that governments will oblige them to pay a tax for carbon po... ... middle of paper ... ...t I am sure is that “carbon energy” will still be necessary for several decades, though renewable energy sources could at the end satisfy the worldwide energy demand. But even of that, the world will always need oil to create plastics, chemicals (products in everyday life) and would still be relevant in 100 years even if it no longer used for energy. So I clearly forecast that prices for oil and gas will increase again, though not inevitably in a linear and straightforward way but in a global trend.