Heart attacks most often occur as an outcome of coronary artery disease or also known as coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary heart disease is a condition where plaque (waxy substance) builds up within the coronary arteries. These arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood to your heart. The plaque is made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack can happen when there is a tear in the plaque, this triggers blood platelets and other substances start to form a blood clot at the site that blocks blood from being able to flow to the heart.
When there is limited blood flow, oxygen supply is reduced. A blood clot will eventually form blocking the artery, stopping blood flow. With limited oxygen supply to the heart muscle a heart attack can happen or, if part of the brain is not receiving enough oxygen it will contribute to a stroke. Atherosclerosis is known to be categorized as a chronic disease which means it develops silently over time. It is the first stage of coronary heart disease.
David Isabell p.2 Coronary artery disease is the build-up of plaque in the arteries supplying blood to the heart. The decrease in blood flow due to plaque buildup can lead to chest pain, also called angina, or progress to a heart attack. The five most common symptoms of a heart attack are chest pressure or pain, shortness of breath, pain or discomfort in the arms or shoulder, pain or discomfort in the jaw, neck or back, and feeling weak, light headed, or nauseous. “Heart disease facts. (2013) Centers of Disease Control and Prevention” Heart disease is caused by plaque buildup in arteries also called atherosclerosis which leads to blockages.
The build-up is caused by fat materials and other substances that form plaque. The plaque builds-up on the wall of the coronary arteries. The coronary arteries are responsible of the blood flow and oxygen that gets to the heart. The build-up of the fat materials causes the arteries to get narrow, this results in the blood flow and oxygen to the heart to slow down or even stop. The heart and arteries are the major organs that are affected by the Coronary Heart Disease.
Prerenal kidney failure occurs suddently when a reduction in blood flow to the kidneys causes loss of kidney function. Prerenal renal failure is the most common type of acute renal failure. This complication is product of many diseases, conditions, and medications that decrease the normal amount of fluid and blood especially in the body. Some examples of these medications are ACE Inhibitors and NSAIDS, severe dehydration, and burns. Another type of kidney faiulre is Intrarenal.
This causes the blood flow to lessen due to not being able to flow thoroughly, which may cause the body to not receive proper blood flow. Myocardial infarction is the death of the cells in an area of the myocardium. This causes oxygen deficiency that is caused by a block in the blood supply also known as a heart attack. The left ventricle is the common site for MI, which is the chamber of the heart that works the most. This results in fibrotic scar formation and permanently impaired cardiac function (Zammaretti 2004).
Angina pectoris is a disease that can cause mild to moderate pain, and the pain may spread to the arms and the jaw, like the symptoms of a heart attack. The pain is inconsistent and come and goes, as Dr. Maestri said, “your body is telling you: take care because you may have a heart attack.” There are many other signs of a heart att... ... middle of paper ... ...efore. They have the risk of heart failure; they may suffer from angina pectoris (a heart disease with similar symptoms of a heart attack), and many other diseases like diabetes, hypertension, etc. Deaths have decreased through the pass of the years, but still many people die on a frequent basis of heart attack. Many victims of these disease die even before they reach the hospital and many others die in the hospital.
Atherosclerosis is a very serious condition that requires medical attention and a change in life style because it is a precursor to many dangerous and potentially fatal diseases. Atherosclerosis begins when the inner wall of the artery becomes damaged and cholesterol and fatty plaques begin to lodge in the arteries. Damage to the endothelial wall inside the artery can be caused by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia (“Subclinical Atherosclerosis..” 443). When this happens, the immune system responds by sending monocytes to the damaged area. The monocytes turn into macrophages; their job is to eat up the excess cholesterol and unblock the artery.
Angina is a severe pain in the chest that is caused due to ischemia of the heart muscle. It happens due to lack of blood which results in shortage of oxygen. Generally there may be obstruction or spasm of the heart blood vessel called the coronary arteries that creates a feeling that the heart is strangled. Angina may or may not cause a heart attack with or without pain. Nevertheless there can be pain in other part of the body like shoulders, arms, jaw, neck and back.
If it is a very small part of the heart involved, it will be able to work without it. If a large portion is damaged, irreversible damage will happen which can lead to death.Damage to the heart muscle may be so severe that it may cause abnormal heart rhythm, called arrhythmias. Most people who are of a myocardial infraction or a heart attack do so within a few hours due to a type of arrhythmia The heart attack victim will complain of pressure, discomfort or a squeezing sensation in the centre of the chest. There may be pain radiating to the arms or the neck. There may also be shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and or indigestion.