Multiple Sclerosis

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is considered an autoimmune response because the immune system attacks the myelin sheets of CNS. These attacks can take place anywhere in the brain and spinal cord. The results are areas of hardening in the myelin sheets which unable the communication of nerve impulses to their designated locations. As consequences of the malfunction of the myelin sheets the nervous systems slows down in response to stimuli. (Zawada, 2010) Etiology Multiple sclerosis is a disease that has been around for centuries. However, as of this day there is not a known cause or a known cure for this disease. After many years of research there are several theories that investigators have thought about the cause of MS, but have not be able to prove it. The most suspected reason is viruses. (Naff, 2009) Other causes could be genetic factors and geographical areas. Symptoms The symptoms in MS vary depending on the site of the lesion. Among the symptoms are spasticity, double vision, tremor, fatigue, numbness, dizziness, vertigo, urinary and bowel control among others. All of these symptoms affect the patient in their everyday life. (Shapiro, 1994) When spasticity occurs the different groups of muscles in the body tighten. The patients experience difficulty doing everyday life activities do to a lack of control and energy. There are different alternatives to manage spasticity depending on the degree in which is affecting the patient. Physical therapy, independent stretching and anti-spasticity medication are methods to deal with mild to moderate symptoms. When symptoms worsen the patient has the option to have surgical intervention or contracture. Neither of these will help ... ... middle of paper ... ...n/nclsm?url=%22 Fallon, L. F. (2002). Multiple sclerosis. In The Gale Encylopedia of Nursing and Allied Health (Vol. 3, pp. 1617-1622). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from Naff, C. (Ed.). (2009). Perspective on diseases and disorders; Multiple sclerosis (1st ed.). Detroit, MI: Gale Cengage Learning . Shapiro, R. (1994). Symptom mangement in multiple sclerosis (2nd ed.). New York: Demos Publication. Zawada, W. M. (2010). Multiple sclerosis. In T. Irons-Georges (Ed.), Magill's Medical Guide (6 ed.). Pasadena: Salem Press. Retrieved from

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