Monetary Policy in the United States
The role of government in the American economy goes past just being a regulator for specific industries. There are two main tools for achieving these objectives: fiscal policy and monetary policy. The Federal Reserve sets the nation's monetary policy to promote the objectives of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.
Monetary Policy in the United States
Monetary policy is the government or central bank process of managing money supply to achieve specific goals (wikipedia.org).
Monetary policy is the control of monetary variables such as, interest rates and money supply, by governments in order to stimulate the economy. Monetary policy can also be utilised in order to control the length and severity of recessions.
On the other hand monetary policy is the expansionary or contraction of the money supply in order to influence the cost and the availability of credit. The three major and two minor tools that the fed can use to conduct monetary policy are easy money policy, tight money policy, reserve requirement, open market operations, and the discount rate. With the easy money policy the Fed allows the money supply to grow and interest rates to fall. This stimulates the economy when the interest rates are low people buy on cred...
Constant changes in market economies make it nearly impossible to maintain a constant level of economic activity. Fluctuations are the heart of market economies; market economies cannot exist without them. These fluctuations can be described as the business cycle, and like every cycle there are a series of events that construct these phases. The business cycle consists of three phases, expansion (until peak point is reached), a decreasing point into recession, and a rebound from recession to recovery. These events must be examined closely because it is possible for the economy to hit extreme highs and extreme lows which can abruptly change the flow of the cycle. For example, if overlooked and the economy hits an extreme low, considered a recession it would be extremely difficult for the economy to recover from this recession and would have to face severe consequences such as enormous debts. Consequences like these are the exact reasons why we have a governing body of the nation (government), whose job is to monitor the economy to produce sustainability and growth. In situations like these, the government implements and enforces certain policies that apply to specific situations and circumstances. Such policies guide the government into influencing and controlling the direction of activity through borrowing, spending, and taxes. Those policies are called economic policies, which are also implemented to control the total demand for final goods and services in the economy at a given time and price level (aggregate demand). There are two policies that specifically control aggregate demand and stimulate the economy, the fiscal and monetary policy.
Keynesianism and monetarism are both ways to stabilize the economy and promote growth when need. In keynesianism, government uses fiscal policy which is a list of policies that government spending and taxing can be used to improve the performance of an economy. The government produces stabilization by taxing and spending yearly plans. Taxing can occur when inflation is high and lowering taxes tends to occur during a high percentage of unemployment. By lowering taxes, it increases disposable income or the party of income that goes to financial responsibilities. When people have more money, they are able to spend more which in return goes into jump starting the economy. Monetary Policy is another policy used in Keynesianism which is a list of protocol designed to regulate the economy by setting the amount of money that is in circulation and controlled interest levels. The Federal Reserve system also known as the central banking system in the U.S. which holds control of this policy. Monetary policy has three tools used my the Federal Reserve to enforce this policy. Reserve Requirement is the first tool that determines the lowest amount of money a bank must possess and is not able to lend out. The second way to enforce monetary policy is by using the discount rate or the interest rank a bank will charge. The f...
Monetary and Fiscal Policy
Monetary policy is the plan to expand or contract the money supply in order to
influence the cost and availability of credit. Fiscal policy is another tool for the
government basically spending and taxing, or borrowing money. Throughout this essay I
will be writing about these two policies. I will be basically comparing and contrasting
Monetary policy is more along the lines to help the nation?s money supply and
help credit so the economy can gain certain things.
The difference between fiscal and monetary policy lies within the different tools wield, and aspects of the economy they influence. Fiscal policy generally deals with different sorts of taxes to manage earnings and spending in the population, and how the government benefits from these interactions. Monetary policy, on the other hand, affects the base value and amount of money in circulation directly, as opposed to simply leveling off amounts from the population to put into federal spending.
Monetary policy is the method by which the government, central bank, or monetary authority controls the supply of money, or trading foreign exchange markets. This policy is usually called either an expansionary policy, or a contractionary policy. An expansionary policy multiplies the total supply of money in the economy, and a contractionary policy diminishes the total supply. Expansionary policy is used to tackle unemployment in an economic decline by lowering interest rates, while contractionary policy has the goal of elevating interest rates to fight inflation. Monetary policy reposes on the relationship between the rates of interest in an economy and the total dispense of money.
It’s easy for one to think of the economy in simple terms of supply and demand. There is much more to economics, however. Fiscal policy’s influence during times of deficit, debt, and surplus has a larger effect on the economy as it can impact nearly every financial aspect in the world. The government is necessary to regulate the economy to benefit the people and the economy in the long run, whether it be a student trying to attend classes or a foreign company doing business internationally.
Monetary policy is an extremely valuable guideline for our economy. Small changes in the money supply can affect the price level, interest rates and almost all aspects of the macroeconomic world. When looking at monetary policy, understanding the variables of each argument can help us determine a more extensive view of each policy.