The component display theory is a type of analysis that emphasizes on different components of instruction for different types of instructional goals. The component display theory is an attempt to create the best combination of instructional strategies to produce a particular learning outcome (Reigeluth, 1999). The component display theory is divided into two parts: content and performance. The content dimension is comprised of facts, concepts, procedures, and principles. The performance dimension is comprised of remembering, using, finding, and generalities.
When learning occurs, the goals, values, and beliefs of the individuals need to be linked to the new data. Also, in constructivism, the person, who is taking in the knowledge, can somehow filter, amend, and reformat the information that he or she feels is important to the schema (Spigner-Littles & Anderson, 1999). A constructivist learner uses the creative approach to apply their own meaning to a topic using the social and cognitive circumstances around themselves (Bloom; Perlmutter & Burrell, 1999). A short and sweet summary of constructivism is "how one attains, develops, and uses cognitive processes" (Airasian & Walsh, 1997). Constructivism versus Traditionalism There are methods that are considered very different than constructivism that are used in the classroom.
Principles of learning identify specific factors that consistently influence learning and describe the particular effects that these factors have. Studies have shown given the same piece of information, individuals interpret it differently and learn it at different rates through different methods. Thus, the challenge of effective instruction is not only delivering the desired instruction, but in a way that learners of various background, skills, and experiences can take that learning into their personal world of knowledge and make it their own. By addressing the fundamental concern of instructional design and incorporating learning theories to support the process of learning, Robert Gagné's instructional design theory has emerged as a primary model used for effective instructional design. This paper will outline Gagné's instructional design theory and provide information on how it is applied to instructional technology.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of PBL? First, I would start by describing what problem-based learning (PBL) is. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an approach that tests learners to take in through engagement in a true issue. It is an arrangement that at the same time creates both critical thinking systems and disciplinary learning bases and abilities by setting understudies in the dynamic part of problem solvers went up against with a not well organized circumstance that mimics the sort of issues they are prone to face as future administrators in perplexing associations. Problem-based learning is learner focused.
Model of Structured reflection suggested by Driscoll (2000). A rationale is given for the selection of this particular incident and also for the selection of the chosen model as a framework. It will show how the model has been used to reflect on the incident, what has been learnt, and the outcome on both current and future practice. Reflection is an active process of witnessing one’s own experience so that we can take a closer look at it. It has its foundations in the discipline of experiential learning.
Learning theories Learning theories help in describing how the information is being immersed, managed, and recollected during the process of learning. Factors such as intellectual, sentimental, past experiences and environmental issues play an important part in the learning process and to acquire knowledge. Behavioral theories Behaviorism, as a learning theory, is based on a change in knowledge through controlled stimulus/response conditioning. This type of learner is dependent upon an instructor for acquisition of knowledge. The instructor must demonstrate factual knowledge, then observe, measure, and modify behavioral changes in specified direction.
According to the authors (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1983), differences between approaches to learning concern the differences that what learners are focusing on, what they are trying to achieve and how they are going about it. In the deep approach, students intend to extract meaning and, thus, engage in an active process of learning that involves relating ideas and searching for patterns and principles (Entwistle, 2000). Furthermore, the deep approach is argued to promote understanding and long-term retention of ideas that could result in long-term and meaningful outcomes of higher education (Gibbs, Margon & Taylor, 1982; Marton et al., 1997; Marton et. al., 1993; Purdie & Hattie, 2002). On the other hand, in the surface approach, the students
Constructivism: A Matter of Interpretation The theory of constructivism rests on the notion that there is an innate human drive to make sense of the world. Instead of absorbing or passively receiving objective knowledge that is "out there," learners actively construct knowledge by integrating new information and experiences into what they have previously come to understand, revising and reinterpreting old knowledge in order to reconcile it with the new (Billett 1996). The cognitive structures that learners build include procedural knowledge (how--techniques, skills, and abilities) and propositional knowledge (that--facts, concepts, propositions). Often neglected are dispositions--attitudes, values, and interests that help learners decide: Is it worth doing? Knowing how and that is not sufficient without the disposition to do.
Bandura (1986: 52) argues that they can only do this if they are attentive, and outlines appropriate complexity, linguistic modelling, and perceived functional value as key promoters of this. Gaining the attention of the learners using these means is achieved in the first section of the tutorial. Firstly, the ECG is considered piece by piece and therefore the discussion of the component parts should be at an appropriate level for final year students. Secondly, the model will be describing their thought routine for each segment. Bandura (1986: 74) identifies that linguistic modelling in cognitive tasks, such as this, allows learners to appreciate the underlying thoughts that guide the models actions.
Robinson (1991: 7) characterizes learning needs as “what the learner needs to do to really obtain the language" In the same vein, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) bring up that a pertinent needs examination must think about not just the target situation needs where the inquiry "What the learners need to learn" is focal, additionally learning needs, that is, "The way the learners will learn". Educators need to figure out which parts of ESP learning will be incorporated, accentuated, coordinated and utilized as a center obviously to address learners' needs and interests. Adapting needs look for data about the learners, their learning styles and techniques, language abilities, choice of showing materials, the setting and the time load. 2.7.3. Needs Analysis: Approaches.