Temperatures range from 90K to 700K. Venus is slightly hotter, but much more stable. Mercury is in many ways similar to the moon. The biggest comparison is the surface being heavily cratered and very old. Mercury is also the second densest planet in the solar system, only behind earth.
The largest of all the orbiting objects in the solar system are the eight planets. The most mass in the solar system is from the Sun, while most of the remaining mass comes from Jupiter. The inner planets are Venus, Mercury, Mars, and Earth. These planets are also called terrestrial planets. The four outer planets are called gas giants because they are mostly comprised of gas and vapor.
Internal Heat: Jupiter is a heat source; it radiates 1.6 times as much energy as it receives from the sun. Magnetic Field: Jupiter has a very strong magnetic field. The magnetic field is probably generated as the planet spins its deep metallic-hydrogen layer with electrical currents. Spacecraft Visits: Jupiter was first visited by NASA's Pioneer 10, which flew by Jupiter in 1973. Later fly-by visits included: Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Ulysses, and Galileo.
The great red spot is a storm larger than Earth, which is pretty incredible. Also, Jupiter reflects many shades of white, red, orange, brown, and yellow. The colors of Jupiter change with the storms and wind patterns in its atmosphere. Another fact is that of all the planets, Jupiter has the shortest day. It turns on its axis once every 9 hours and 55 minutes and it orbits the Sun once every 11.8 Earth years.
Jupiter, the first of the jovian planets, reigns supreme throughout the solar system. Named after the Roman god Jove, the ruler of Olympus; Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun and is also the largest planet in the Earth’s solar system. It is 318 times more massive than Earth and is two thirds of the planetary mass in the solar system. Jupiter’s surface, unlike earth, is gaseous and not a solid. It is about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium with traces of methane, ammonia, water and rock.
Saturn was named for Cronus, lord of the Titans in Greek mythology (www.space.com). Saturn has fifty-three known moons, but there are a few that have yet to be officially named moons. Titan is Saturn’s largest moon and is the second largest moon in the solar system. Saturn’s moons are made of more ice than the moon on Earth and they have temperatures that can range anywhere from -145 degrees Celsius to -220 degrees Celsius, its brightest moons being the coldest. Titan is made up of mostly Nitrogen and it is the only moon with an atmosphere.
The temperature on Venus is 465 C. Jupiter is the biggest planet and it also rotates the fastest It two and a half times massive than all the other planets and made up of gases that’s why it’s known as the “gas giant”. Earth has a magnetic field that is so strong that its forces reach thousands of kilometers from Earth’s surface to the magnetosphere. Because of the magnetosphere, life can exist on our planet. Saturn is famous for its rings, which can be seen from Earth with the naked eye. Also, Saturn has 62 moons, a few are large, but most of them are tiny.
One huge crater on Mimas has more than one-third the diameter of the satellite itself, so that, if the crater were formed by impact, it seems that Mimas would have been in danger of breaking up. Enceladus was not well shown from Voyager 1, but it may be comparatively smooth. Titan, by far the largest of Saturn's satellites, is in a class of its own because of its dense atmosphere. Data obtained from Voyager 1 indicate that the atmospheric pressure at Titan's surface is 1.5 to two times that of the Earth at sea level. The actual surface of the satellite has an orange-colored layer of what may be called "photochemical smog."
Craters on Venus seem to come in bunches indicating that the large meteoroids that do reach the surface usually break up in the atmosphere. The oldest terrains on Venus seem to be about 800 million years old. Extensive volcanisms at the time wiped out the earlier surface including any large craters from early Venus’ history. The interior of Venus is probably very similar to that of Earth. It consists of an iron core about 3000 km in radius, a molten rocky mantle comprising the majority of the planet.
Neptune is the eighth planet from the sun, the third largest by mass, and the forth largest in diameter, at 49,532 km. Among the gaseous planets Neptune is the most dense, its mass is seventeen times the mass of Earth. Neptune’s composition is similar to that of Uranus. It is made up of several different rocks and ices and it is about 15% hydrogen and a little helium. This gas planet has the fastest winds in the solar system reaching 2,100 km per hour.