Before the Western world had an influence on them, Africa, like the other continents had stable systems that differed, but resembled other civilizations around the world. Ibn, Battuta, Visit from Mombasa
The Mongol and the Mali Empires differ in their rise with the use of certain methods towards conquering. Geographic locations play an enormous role in the rise of both these magnificent empires. In the Mali empire, Islam was prevalent unlike the Mongol Empire where everyone was allowed to practice their own religion. Another difference would be the methods by which they arose. Although warfare existed within the Mali empire, Mali arose by peaceful methods. However, the Mongol empire attacked states which were already established. If people ...
The African empires, kingdoms, and cities had many achievements before the arrival of the Europeans. Some of these achievements had influences many other places in the world. Three major achievements were the trading systems, their military forces and strengths of its people, and the wealth and success.
It is only recently that more reliable studies have brought to light much information about great civilizations that developed in Africa while Europe was in the period often referred as the Dark Ages. The earliest of these mature civilizations were in West Africa. In a vast region south of the Sahara, Africans organized kingdoms which in time became great empires. This region is called the Sudan (a word meaning "land of the Blacks" in Arabic) The Sudan was important in the early history of Black Africa because the Africans first practiced agriculture in this region, and thus became the first people south of the Sahara to fashion and use iron tools and weapons. They were also among the first people in Africa to organize viable political systems. The Sudanic Blacks had learn to domesticate crops long before the coming of Christianity, and their grain production furnished food for an expanding population.
There was also a Kingdom called Mali that broke off from the Ghana Empire. At this time they had embraced the religion of Islam and had been under the great rule of Mansa Musa. This empire had the job of protecting the caravans or shipments carrying the goods, so that they can trade. They helped towards the function of trade so that both the importer and exporter gained something. In document 3 it explains how their wealth was great because of their trade. The document also talks about the fact that they had exhibited the characteristics of an advanced divination like sufficient food to feed its people, a strong army equipped with advanced weapons and income derived from taxes. Even though the Mali Empire had wealth there was very little corruption if there was with the ruler. He did not go mad with power but he was generous. In document four it states they there was no person who did not receive a sum of gold from him.
Africa had been one of the most beautiful richest advanced places in the world. It was civilized, organized and had so much to offer to others. Africa had many empires that were growing strong. Africa was a place that was rich in many areas and had partnerships with many. Africa and Europe had developed diplomat...
In analyzing the legacy of the 14th century Islamic traveler Ibn Battuta, it is impossible to ignore the impact that his voyages in the 1350-60s had on the social and cultural development of the Mali Empire and its neighbors. But even more significant was the impact of these travels to the upper classes living in his native Morocco and in the Arabic birthplace of Islam, who would grow to have great power and prestige across Africa and the East.
Bennett, Norman. Africa and Europe: From Roman Times to National Independence. New York: Africana Publishing Co, 1984.
By 800 Ghana was securely in control of West Africa’s trade routes, and nearly all trade between northern and southern Africa passed through Ghana. Trade begin to increase, and along with it, Ghana’s wealth. Some of the wealth the gold mines brought in wasn’t traded, and Ghana’s kings kept huge stores of the valuable metal for themselves. The rulers of Ghana banned everyone else in Ghana from owning gold nuggets, and in doing so ensured that the king would be richer than his subjects. Another part of Ghana’s wealth went to its powerful army, which Ghana’s kings used to conquer many adjacent areas. The empire of Ghana later reached its peak under Tunka Manin. In the mid 1000s, Ghana was rich and powerful, but by the early 1200s, the empire collapsed because of three major factors. The first thing that impacted Ghana’s decline was invasion. A group of North African Muslims called the Almoravids attacked Ghana in the 1060s and after fourteen years of fighting, finally defeated the people of Ghana. The second was overgrazing, and the third was internal rebellion. In about 1200 the people of a country Ghana had conquered rebelled. The empire fell apart into pieces, the once lavish court in
Gilbert, Erik, and Jonathan T. Reynolds. Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Boston: Pearson, 2012.
P. 45: "Maghan Sundiata, I salute you; king of Mali, the throne of your fathers awaits you…Weeping mothers pray only in your name, the assembled kings await you, for your name alone inspires confidence in them. Son of Sogolon, your hour has come, the words of the old Gnankouman Doua are
He decided to improve the status of his land on his arrival from a pilgrimage from Mecca in 1324. Furthermore, he transformed his trading city of Timbuktu to a center of learning and religion and built a mass, which set a new style of architecture in West Africa. “Caravans of Gold” underlines the importance of Timbuktu because it concentrated on African scholarship, politics, teaching theology, and Islamic law. Timbuktu was a significant place in Africa during this time because it became a market right after and made a profit for the region. Likewise, it was a religious, cultural, and profitable center whose people traveled north across the Sahara through Morocco and Algeria to other parts of Africa, Europe, and Asia. According to The History of Africa, “Because of his devotion to Islam, Mansa Musa strengthened Islam and promoted education, trade, and commerce in Mali” (Asante, 2014, pg. 135). It was a successful center for the trans-Saharan gold and salt trade and grew as the center of Islam. This statement launches the truth that Timbuktu supported Islamic values and knowledge because it was a city most well-known for the education of important scholars whose backgrounds were of Islam. Asante supports the fact that Mansa Musa was effective in reforming the city of Timbuktu and the trade in that area. Asante also states that “Musa did not forget the control of the gold and salt; it was fundamental for the
France, being the second-most-prominent power in Africa, mainly impacted it culturally. Although its cardinal motivation to expand its empire to Africa involved economic reasons (such as the slave trade), there was also an intent to assimilate and, in essence, glorify French ideals and culture. Very little evidence of its economic presence in Africa remains -- however, a French presence can be very easily detected. French is the primary official language in 18 African countries; it is one of two official languages in another country; finally, its undeniable and pow...
The great Machiavelli once said, "Whoever wishes to foresee the future must consult the past; for human events ever resemble those of preceding times." Indeed, the study of history is important as history does seem to repeat itself. Many people in today's society learn about the past from textbooks and other books, as these are of easy access. Is this really the best way to learn about the past? The people of ancient Africa did not think so, as they had special people called "griots"who passed the people's traditions and history down orally from generation to generation. One such griot, Mamadou Kouyate, recalls the story of the most famous ruler in African history, Sundiata, in D.T. Niane's book Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali. This book has become an entertaining, yet scrutinized, source about the history of Mali and it's surrounding areas. Much scrutiny of this tale comes from those who question the validity of the griots, though Mamadou Kouyate is quick to point out that "[His] word is pure and free of all untruth; it is the word of [his] father...griots do not know what lying is" (Niane 1). If the context of the epic is true, then there are many valuable things to be learned from it including the traditions and customs of ancient Africa, and how Sundiata came to rule over such a large area. Based upon a reading of the text, it is easy to see that Sundiata's political power was not based soley on religion, as he used many conventional methods to gain and remain in power.
Sundiata developed into a great leader of Mali through hardships, religion, and core/tributary/periphery relationships of states. The djeli who transmitted this information to the translators, is also a manifestation of an institution important in Sundiata’s epic, because without djelis these stories would be lost forever. Sundiata learned about the formation, running and maintenance of African states through interactions with the communities he was introduced to.