For authors to deceive readers knowingly through a creative nonfiction medium is to rob readers of the intrinsic connection and empathy felt towards the story. The story becomes significantly less powerful and not as personally important to the reader. It is then dismissed as fiction, an untrue fairy tale once lost in the nonfiction realm. Writers of creative nonfiction books must then write truthfully to ensure creative nonfiction books are truthful. This is the only practical approach for the creation of true creative nonfiction books.
McEwan's narrative does not end with the final chapter but it secretly extends into the appendices that follow. McEwan manipulatively uses them to allow us to believe that the narrative was based on a real life story aiming to provoke shock from the reader, while also providing us with resolution to the narrative. He finally does conclude his narrative with a letter from Jed Parry which readers will, based on appendix I, either believe to be real or based on a real letter. It also allows the reader to fully acknowledge the insanity and delusion in which the character exists. This actual ending of the novel is a very significant last voice as the image of Parry living in his insanity will leave a bearing impression on the readers mind knowing that people like this exist in their very own reality.
John Hollowell's, critical analysis of Truman Capote's novel In Cold Blood focuses on the way Capote used journalism and fiction to try and create a new form of writing (82-84). First, Capote involves his reader. "This immediacy, this spellbinding 'you-are-there' effect, comes less from the sensational facts (which are underplayed) than from the 'fictive' techniques Capote employs" (Hollowell 82). Capote takes historical facts and brings in scenes, dialogue, and point of view to help draw the reader in (Hollowell 82). Capote also took into consideration which parts of information to use by how dramatic of an appeal they had (Hollowell 82).
The more explicit devices of authenticity faded from use, and a new sense of self-awareness emerged as novelists argued for legitimacy within the narrative. In Henry Fielding's Tom Jones, the story is just as important as its construction. The narrator, at times barely distinguishable from the author, frequently intrudes, expounding on the tale but also explaining how and why the narrative works. The meticulous documentation of the "art" of the novel shows that writing novels (as well as reading them) is not idle work. By Jane Austen's time, the genre had a clear enough definition of itself that her narrators rarely occasioned to intrude like Fielding's.
In his essay, “On Several Obsolete Notions,” Alain Robbe-Grillet criticizes the stable characters, linear plotlines, and calculated content which make up the conventional novel. He argues that a novelist does not need to begin a story with its content in mind rather, “the novelist’s strength is precisely that he invents [...] without a model.” And that “invention and imagination become, at the limit, the very subject of the book” (Robbe-Grillet 32). Robbe-Grillet’s notions of the creative process are true in that a successful novelist may not require a formula to write by; instead he may experiment with language for a chance to reveal new ideas. The Nouveau Roman, or “new novel,” is a movement popularized by Robbe-Grillet’s criticisms of the conventional novel. Since the conventional form of narrative has been perfected by writers in such a way that it is easily accessible and enjoyed by the mainstream community.
Whereas in traditional novels, the fictitious characters are assumed to be real in some imaginary world, Kundera almost immediately admits that ?it would be senseless for the author to try convince the reader that his characters once actually lived?they were born of a stimulating phrase or two from a basic situation? (39). His characters were created in light of the author?s contemplations. However, this does not automatically make the characters flat ?types?, as some have argued. To the contrary, the author?s admittance of the characters as fictional creations whom he has pondered very deeply lend ... ... middle of paper ... ...ly ignored, it is important to understand Kundera?s purposes outside of this historical context.
Although the text may become derivative as it is translated from author to text, the inability to conquer the true meaning of the authors is solely left up to the subjectivity of the reader. The birth of the reader is sacrificed at the author’s death. “Perception without reason is mere experience, but reason without perception is nothing.” The theories presented in Barthes’s literature promote the reader’s perception with reason. The text promotes independent thinking knowing the reader may posses a subjective bias. The birth of the reader through reading texts similar to Barthes’s consciously challenges the reader’s perception and reason of experience to connect to novellas such as Balthazar’s Marvelous Afternoon.
The Things They Carried: Truth, Fiction, and Human Emotion There are many levels of truth in Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried. This novel deals with story-telling as an act of communication and therapy, rather than a mere recital of fact. In the telling of war stories, and instruction in their telling, O'Brien shows that truth is unimportant in communicating human emotion through stories. O'Brien's writing style is so vivid, the reader frequently finds himself accepting the events and details of this novel as absolute fact. To contrast truth and fiction, the author inserts reminders that the stories are not fact, but are mere representations of human emotion incommunicable as fact.
The author uses first person point of view in his article, to connect with his audience, but his connection is not a personal one he wants it to be one of logic. He puts emphasis on the fact that we as reader are somewhat put in a position, that if we are the same gender and have gone through the same adolescent troubles (puberty, menstruation, boys, etc), we are compelled to identify with the main character. Sommer’s states: The reader reads in order to feel sorrow for the protagonist in a manner the reader can assimilate. Yet, it seems that the nature of Margaret’s thoughts is inherently dialogic or, to work with Duke’s terms, empathic: neither Margaret nor the reader uses the text in order to solicit pity from the other. What function would a “pity party” serve a reader by herself?
Jones thus determined that Hamlets unconscious motives led to his delay. Through psychological strategies, one can better explore both conscious and unconscious motives of the writer and the characters... ... middle of paper ... ...ritics believe that there are many ways of interpreting a text, they believe that a reader create meanings in literature. Reader-response critics are concerned with a readers experience with literature. This criticism does not aim to determine the meaning of a text, but to draw to our attention the ways in which we read and our influences on our reading. Deconstructionist: Deconstructionist critics simply believe that there is no singular meaning to a text.