Starch is polysaccharide which play important role in the metabolism of living organisms. In addition, starch are raw materials in the food and materials industry. Increasing the starch content of crops based on improving the activity of some genes encoding enzymes plays an important role in the process of biosynthesis and accumulation of starch, which is one of the research are of interest. Like in bacteria, the process of starch biosynthesis in plants occurs by using ADP-Glc as raw materials to made long link chain α-1.4-glucoside. ADP-Glcpyrophosphorylase (AGPase) has important role in biosynthesis of ADP-Glc molecule, and therefore AGPase is an critical enzyme of glycogen synthesis in bacteria and starch in plants.
Theromophillic bacterium, Thermus aquaticus, is used to aid in the process of amplifying DNA by isolating its DNA polymerase; better known as Taq polymerase. Another prominent use of microorganisms is in agriculture. Microorganisms can also be used in vast amounts in agriculture; including but not limited to food preservation (eg. heat, cold, radiation, and chemicals), food additives (eg monosodium, glutamate, citric acid, yeast). One of the most ironic of the use of microorganisms in agriculture is that of food preservations.
For instance, pharmaceuticals and personal care products may introduce to the terrestrial environment with potential impacts on beneficial soil microbe populations (Hillis et al., 2008). We will discover more economic significant of utilization of fungi in biotechnology area. 2.0 ENZYME Despite of general properties of enzymes, the properties also varies from where it comes from and how it been produced. For instance, the enzymatic saccharification method in lignocellulosic bioethanol is generated by hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicelluloses. This method gets high attention because of its higher theoretical yield compared to other methods (Taneda et al., 2012).
Properties of fungal proteases are high diversity, broad substrate specificity, and high stability under extreme conditions (Jisha, et al., 2013). Often use fungi in protease production are Aspergillus niger (Barthomeuf, et al., 1992) and A. oryzae (Nakadai, et al., 1973) and A.melleus (Luisetti, et al., 1991). Oral administration of A. oryzae protease can be used in capsules, chewables, liquid, powder, strips or tablets to aid digestion and correct lytic enzyme deficiency syndrome (Metha, 2010). Besides, this enzyme has been prove to have anti-inflammatory effect and is useful in treatment of various disease and conditions. This method of ... ... middle of paper ... ...003).
Kimchi ferments anaerobically (Jung et al., 2011). There are various types of microbes that are involved in the fermentation of kimchi. The main bacteria that participated are the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Heterofermentative LAB is an important participant in kimchi fermentation. The examples of the bacteria are those that belong to the genera Weissella, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc (Jung, Lee, & Jeon, 2014).
There are a number of both these sources that we are able to use for the production of single cell protein (SCP). The micro-organisms used belong to the following groups of Algae, Fungi and bacteria. (Slide Share, 2012) Pharmaceuticals; The Pharmaceutical industry understands the p... ... middle of paper ... ...ound in the organism. An example would be that organisms are currently on the market and also include plants with the resistance to some insects and also plants can also tolerate herbicides and also crops with modified oil contents. (Biosafety, 2005) Genetic engineering was found to be a changing of an organism.
Recombinant production of cellulases in bacteria increase the enzyme yield, compared to the original host. These changes involving gene copy number, promoters and inducer types3. Genome reduction in Bacillus subtilis, reached by stepwise gene deletion and it increase the cellulase production and organism growth efficiency. These cellulase expressing bacterial organisms are stable and active under industri... ... middle of paper ... ... cellulases expression performed at high concentration and retaining similar activity and stability to the native forms. Kluyveromyces lactis can secrete high yield heterologous cellulase use in enzymatic pretreatment strategies.
2.5 Microbial production of biosurfactants Biosurfactants are produced by a variety of microbes, secreted either extracellularly or attached to parts of cells. A variety of organisms like bacteria, yeast and fungi are used for production. Biosurfactants are strain dependent, depending on the organism and strain, type of biosurfactants is produced. Maximizing productivity or minimizing production costs demands the use of process-optimization strategies that involve multiple factors. The conventional method of medium optimization involves varying one variable at a time, while keeping the others at fixed levels; yet, this method is laborious, time consuming and does not assure the determination of the optimal conditions for metabolite production.
As for, bioplastic biodegradability and biocompatibility, Biotechnological application fully exploits of these properties and many type of bioplastics have been successfully biosynthesized using by new biotechnological strategies (28). Hence, several strategies have been developed to increase of bulk production that are more efficient and less expensive (29). These are considered as multilateral, for example: definition of the modified cultures for generation of wide range of biopolymer monomers using wide range of feedstocks, utilization of engineered micro-organisms in order to use different inexpensive carbon sources such as grape pomace, waste frying oil, fish solid waste, methane, molasses and glycerol (30-34). Figure.1: General scheme of three metabolic pathways for PHAs biosynthesis in R. eutropha and P. entomophila. PHAs biosynthesis occurred by Acetoacetyl-CoA synthesis (A) de novo fatty acid synthesis (B) and fatty acid β-Oxidation (C).
For this, it requires integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology and engineering science. There are various different federations that work for biotechnology and help promote use of this new innovated field for public benefit and its environment. Focusing on this new emerging field of biotechnology can help our environment and focus on many unanswered questions yet at the same time the complexity such as bioethical issues, safety, bioterrorism remains fast-paced throughout our country in fact in the entire world.