Introduction of Petroleum

Introduction of petroleum:

Petroleum is otherwise known as crude oil. It occurs naturally beneath the earth. Petroleum is also meaning of rock oil. The term petroleum is a generic name applied to the deposits of oil materials. Petroleum occurs beneath the earth. It is a flammable liquid and mainly composed of various hydrocarbons and its average composition is c 80-87%, H 11-15%, S 0.1-4%, N and O 0.1-0.55.

Formation of petroleum

Petroleum is evident from chromatographic, spectroscopic and analytical studies that a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds is present in petroleum. The following are the common constituents present in petroleum.

In formation of petroleum hydrocarbon: Major constituents (nearly 70%); normal, branched and cycloalkanes are present; alkylbenzenes found in lower boiling fractions; higher boiling fractions contain polynuclear aromatics like naphthalenes; terpenes are present to a minor extent and account for the high specific rotations of petroleum distillates.

Sulphur containing compounds: In formation of petroleum, present as org...

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