Bitumen that has been mined are very viscous, so a diluent solvent such as naphtha or other low molecular weight hydrocarbons is required to extract the bitumen from the oil sand slurry 2. The resulting by-products from the extraction processes, which contained a mixture of process water, sand, clays, unrecovered bitumen and diluent solvent, are pumped into settling basins (Camp 1977; MacKinnon 1989). For every 4 m3 of tailing wastes, 1 m3 extraction of oil sands is being produced 3. The tailings mainly consist of about 45% water and 55% solids (Penner 2006). The unrecovered bitumen accounts for approximately 0.5% of the tailings (Penner 2006).
Octane and kerosene are both liquids and have medium molecular weights, whilst the larger hydrocarbons are solids such as tar and bitumen. Fractional Distillation Oil drilling occurs both at land and at sea, and is then transported to an oil refinery. Fractional distillation is the process in which the different length hydrocarbon chains are separated by their boiling points, which are dependent on the length. These different length chains are called fractions. The shorter carbon chains evaporate more easily than the longer chains.
Similarly, the distillate and residue obtained after fractional distillation of CCT are known as coal tar creosotes and coal tar pitch respectively. The creosotes consist of light oils (2-8%), middle oils (8-10%), heavy oils (8-10%) and anthracene oils (16-20%) (Gosselin et al. 1984). Pitch is mostly made up of highly condensed aromatic hydrocarbons (Kershaw 1993). Medical pix lithantracis is a mixture of pitch (66.67%) and tar oils (33.33%) (Roelofzen 2007).
– Preliminary Assessment 1 Part a Identify a mixture from one of the spheres of the Earth- Lithosphere – Petroleum/Crude oil Crude oil is a naturally occurring fossil fuel that has been used for many thousands of years. It is a flammable liquid found in most cases underground. Crude oil’s components are primarily hydrocarbons that have many variations; traces of other elements are also found in crude oil and also in some cases natural gas. The term ‘crude oil’ refers to oil that is unprocessed. Crude oil is obtained through oil drilling, where a hole is drilled into a point on the Earth and oil is pumped out, in some cases natural gas is also obtained during the process.
Petroleum; or crude oil (‘unprocessed oil’ that is taken from the ground), is a naturally occurring oily, bituminous liquid composed of various organic chemicals called hydrocarbons. Petroleum contains gaseous, liquid and solid elements. The viscosity (the ability of a liquid to flow) of petroleum varies from a liquid as thin as petrol to a liquid so thick that it will barely pour. The number of hydrocarbons present in each petroleum deposit determines the viscosity of the crude oil. Petroleum comes in two forms; liquid and gas.
By combining acid with metal components, it form a dual-function catalytic system that potentially convert low-octane naphtha and paraffins into high-octane gasoline. Promoter has been added to increase the stability of the catalyst by moderating the rate of coke formation. Platinum-Rhenium ( Pt-Re)is one of the catalyst. Lastly, there are few more catalysts can be found in oil industry and played important role in specific process. Refer to the table below: Unit Operation Catalyst Catalyst support Hydrodesulphurization Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) Alumina Support Ruthenium disulphide Catalytic Reforming Platinum Rhenium Paladium
The three main producible types can be seen in many different unconventional resources in which this report discusses some of the most important examples for each type along with how producible each formation/resource is. Kerogen is an insoluble macromolecular organic matter that forms from various environments, climates, and biota, giving information on the geologic pasts of these kerogen sources. It is formed by diagenetic processes in the first few hundred meters of burial (Dow, 1976). Kerogen, when mature, forms petroleum and natural gas. To become mature, the kerogen converts by increases in temperature and pressure.
3.2.3 GANDHAGAM Sulphur is a chemical element that is represented with the chemical symbol "S" and the atomic number 16 on the periodic table. Because it is 0.0384% of the Earth's crust, Sulphur is the seventeenth most abundant element following strontium. Sulphur also takes on many forms, which include elemental Sulphur, organo-Sulphur compounds in oil and coal, H2S(g) in natural gas, and mineral sulfides and sulfates. This element is extracted by using the Frasch process, a method where superheated water and compressed air is used to draw liquid Sulphur to the surface. Offshore sites, Texas, and Louisiana are the primary sites that yield extensive amounts of elemental Sulphur.
￼Petroleum by Shivkiran Anil Nambiar! for Mr. Tony Burton ￼￼Introduction to Petroleum Petroleum is a natural substance that occurs beneath the earth’s surface. Petroleum is made of decomposed organic substances and hydrocarbons of different atomic weights. ! Petroleum is the name commonly used for presenting both unprocessed crude oil and the products of petroleum that are made up of refined crude oil.
It is formed by crude oil that has migrated toward the Earth's surface and has been stripped of its lighter fractions by descending water. • The components of Petroleum: (A) hydrocarbons. I will spend a lot of time on this segment, as it allows a lot of discussion about hydrocarbons, in which I can discuss chemical compounds and molecular structures and subsequent properties. Can discuss paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics in detail. (B) Non-hydrocarbons.