According to NACP statistics (http://www.naacp.org/pages/criminal-justice-fact-sheet) African American and Hispanics make up 58% of all prisoners even though African Americans and Hispanics make up 25 % of the United States population. According to Hurwitz and Peffley (2010) Caucasian men older than 18 have a 1 in 106 chance of being imprisoned, while in comparison to a 1 in 16 chance of being imprisoned for African American men in the same age range. According to (Coker,2003) estimated that 28 % of African Americans will be incarcerated at one point in their lifetimes. Small (2001) stated that one out of three African Americans in their twenties are either in jail, prison, on probation, or parole. Small (2001) stated that although African Americans make up 13 % of all drug users in America, they are 35 % of the people arrested for drug possession and 55 % of the people convicted for drug possession.
There are a few reasons why racialized mass incarceration occurs and how it negatively affects poor black communities. Blacks are overly portrayed in jails and prisons. Bobo and Thompson stated that in 1954, 98,000 African Americans were in jail or prison. By 2002, there was an increase of 900%, 884,500 African Americans were in jail or prisons. In 2007, blacks made up 39% of detained males in prisons or jails however they make up 12% of the total adult male population.
The American prison and jail systems are defined by a fence racial disparity in the population of incarcerated people. Mauer & King’s (2007) study found the following: The national incarcerated rate for Caucasians is 412 per 100,000 residents compared to, 2,290 for African Americans and 742 for Hispanics. These figures mean that 2.3% of all African Americans are incarcerated, compared to 0.4% of Caucasians and 0.7% of Hispanics. (p. 5) Based on the facts from the publication “National Council on Crime and Delinquency” presented by Hartney & Vuong (2009), the overall rates of which African Americans were arrested were twice as higher than the arrests rates for Caucasi... ... middle of paper ... ...ATIONAL COUNCIL ON CRIME AND DELINQUENCY www.nccdglobal.org/sites/default/files/publication_pdf/ Kamalu, N. C., Coulson-Clark, M., & Kamalu, K. M. (2010). Racial Disparities in Sentencing: Implications for the Criminal Justice System and the African American Community.
“Some 80 percent of the men and women behind bars – some 1.4 million individuals – are seriously involved with drug and alcohol abuse.”(prisonpolicy.org). This is a sad statistic, especially considering that substance and alcohol abuse are now regarded as mental illness. It seems that instead of incarcerating these low level criminals we should help them. The cost of keeping these people in prison is not cheap either. The Vera Institute of Justice reported that forty states spent thirty nine billion dollars in one year on prisons and prisoners, a yearly average of $31,286 per prisoner (Vera.org).
The racial disparities in imprisonment have been felt the most by young African American males (Western and Pettit 2010). Males are a significant majority of the prison and jail populations, accounting for around ninety percent of the population (Western and Pettit 2010). Racial disparities in incarceration are astounding when one counts the men who have been incarcerated in their lifetime rather than those serving time on any given day (Western and Pettit 2002). For instance, in 1989, approximately two percent of white men in their early thirties had been in prison compared to thirteen percent of African American men in their early thirties (Western and Pettit 2002). These extreme racial disparities disproportionately affect communities of color and have significant collateral effects such as family stress and dissolution,
Moreover, black males born today have a one in three chance of going to prison during their lifetime, compared to a one in seventeen chance for white males. These trends have been exacerbated by the impact of the "war on drugs," with three-fourths of all drug offenders being persons of color, far out of proportion to thei... ... middle of paper ... ...people and it should be abolished. References Author Unknown (2015) Race and the Death Penalty, ACLU. Web. 28 Nov. 2015. https://www.aclu.org/race-and-death-penalty Author Unknown (1994, March) Racial Disparities in Federal Death Penalty Prosecutions 1988-1994 [Online], Available: http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics there are currently 2.4 million people in federal and state prison in the United States, that equals out to 1 out of every 100 American adults. This places the United States at number one in the world for its incarceration rate. The US has 5% of the worlds population but 245% of the worlds prisoners. In addition to this there are 4.8 million adults on probation of parole and 70,792 juveniles in juvenile detention. In 2008 the breakdown for adults under correctional control was as follows: one out of 18 men, one in 89 women, one in 11 African-Americans (9.2 percent), one in 27 Latinos (3.7 percent), and one in 45 Caucasians (2.2 percent).
That is approximately 1.8 billion people that we have imprisoned with us each and everyday. Using the most recent data available, 753 per 100,000 people in the U.S. are in prison or jail. More than 3x higher than the next country with second highest. This billion-dollar industry has problems of its own and financial tolls on our economy. The state of life of prisoners, their well-being after their sentence, and the degrading economic standpoint on costs of maintenance contributes to the fact that we are living within a multi-faceted failing project.
It is an issue that can be likened to the terms of slavery, as “... ... middle of paper ... ...isoned for non-violent offenses – even going as far as to implement “anti-gang laws” which can be likened to Jim Crows laws as they limit time allowed to be outside, clothes that can be worn etc. To put the statistics together, “Ninety-seven percent of 125,000 federal inmates have been convicted of non-violent crimes. It is believed that more than half of the 623,000 inmates in municipal or county jails are innocent of the crimes they are accused of. Of these, the majority are awaiting trial. Two-thirds of the one million state prisoners have committed non-violent offenses.
(American Journal of Public Health, June 2013) A State prison in Elmira, New York the population is 1,775 inmates where 50% are African Americans, 32% are Hispanics and the remaining inmates are white. These minority groups make up less than one-fourth of the state's population in the state of New York. Claudette Spencer a lawyer for the African American and Hispanic inmates states “That African Americans and Hispanic inmates at the prison were punished twice as often as white inmates and that means minority inmates have to spend more time in prison waiting to be paroled”. (Tabor, Mary B W. New York Times, Late Edition (East Coast) [New York, N.Y] 03 Oct 1991) Some of the judicial systems and l... ... middle of paper ... ...y fraternity finds a new seller and starts over and the prison system continues to grow from the sellers. In this day and age society is so not fair to minorities.