In today’s world, the American still has barriers to overcome in the matter of racial equality. Whether it is being passed over for a promotion at the job or being underpaid, some people have to deal with unfair practice that would prevent someone of color or the opposite sex from having equal opportunity at the job. In 2004, Dukes vs. Wal-Mart Stores Incorporation was a civil rights class-action suite that ruled in favor of the women who worked and did not received promotions, pay and certain job assignments. This proves that some corporations ignore the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which protects workers from discrimination based on sex, race, religion or national origin.
World War I marked a drastic change in African American history. The war began as a conflict between the Europeans and soon became an event with revolutionary consequences, which would have a big affect on the social, economic, and political future for the black community. The war impacted the black community of Cleveland greatly whether you were male or female, soldier or civilian. The war began in 1914 and ended in 1918, which marked one of the most dynamic periods for the African American community because of migration, racial violence, and political protest. African Americans challenged the American Government, demanded their rights as American citizens, and demanded equality both in subtle and dramatic ways. We should further our knowledge on World War I because it is important to develop a better understanding of how the war affected African Americans and the struggles they faced because of it.
In her article “From America’s New Working Class”, Kathleen R. Arnold makes clear that welfare/workfare recipients are treated like prisoners or second class citizens. Likewise, In Michelle Alexander’s article “The New Jim Crow” she describes how blacks is made criminals by a corrupt criminal justice system. Alexander also points out in her article “The New Jim Crow” that shackles and chains are not the only form of slavery. Furthermore, Alexander states that although America is thought of as the home of the free, blacks are more likely than any other race to be arrested, unemployed, or denied housing. Freedom is not an absolute value in America, as slavery is more ubiquitous than ever.
Black soldiers were sent to war during World War two, and most of them went willingly. Most of them did this to try and ear respect from their white “superiors” by going to fight and perhaps earn an equal standing with the whites. This was not seen, though. For example, Joe Louis, a famous African American boxer joined the army in 1942. The newspaper The New York Amsterdam News depicted Joe serving impeccably dressed white men with the caption of “Why Joe Joined the Army!” This clearly shows how African Americans were treated within the army. This depiction also gives Americans a clear view of the segregation in the army, although they are fighting for the same thing: release the Europeans from the Nazi leader, Hitler. Another example of this, given by Mrs. Charles H. Puryear’s brother, was that when the white lieutenant had Italian prisoners, he wanted the black soldiers to give up their seats to them. He then wonders if one of the Nazi officers would make some of his soldiers give up their seats for prisoners. This sho...
The Young Reader's Companion to American History. Ed. John A. Garraty. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. 384+. Print.
Many challenges had to be faced during the Civil Rights movement of the 1950’s; one of those challenges being the case of Brown v. Board of Education, which tested the ruling in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson back in the year 1896 proclaiming segregation to be constitutional as long as it was “separate but equal”. In this particular case, Thurgood Marshall claimed that forcing African Americans to used separate education facilities was violating the 14th Amendment which gave the right of equality to all citizens under the law of the United States.
“For African Americans, World War II was a fight on two fronts. It was a struggle to prevail over the nation’s external enemies and a battle against a familiar home-grown foe: bigotry” (Allen). When World War II began in Europe in 1939, blacks demanded better treatment than they had experienced during World War I. Black newspaper editors insisted during 1939 and 1940 that black support for this war effort would depend on fair treatment. They demanded that black soldiers be trained in all military roles and that black civilians have equal opportunities to work in war industries at home.
WWI was initially viewed as a European war, so far removed from the lives of African Americans. Though as the US declared war on Germany in 1917, African Americans optimistically saw an opportunity to assert their rights as citizens, demand equality and prove their loyalty through enlisting and fighting for their country. This was supported by a number of notable Black activists including W.E.B Du bois who urged African Americans to ‘close ranks’ with the whites. One of the lasting impacts of both world wars was the Great Migration of African Americans from the rural South to the industrialised and urban North, which dramatically shifted the geographical centre of African American population and changed the racial balance of the country. War related industries such as weapon production grew exponentially in the...
By 1875, both the North and the South of America were prepared to abandon its commitment to equality for all citizens regardless of race. Emancipation was lost and the once popular support for Reconstruction was fading; White Southerners despised of this whilst white Northerners grew tired of its enormous cost. Almost instantly, notorious societies began appearing especially in the South, where citizens were devoted to restoring the white supremacy in politics and social life as seen before the Civil War. The rebirth of white supremacy in the South, particularly the Ku Klux Klan, was accompanied by the increase of enforced racial segregation under Jim Crow laws which legally segregated blacks and whites in virtually all public places. By 1885 essentially all the Southern states now had officially segregated public schools. Moreover, in 1896 the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson established the infamous doctrine of “separate but equal” which would go on to define racial relations. “Slavery is abolished; but the ordinances of police enacted to uphold slavery have n...
The U.S. in 1910 was a society where racial segregation was the norm. The Jim Crow laws of segregation were enacted between 1876 and 1965 in America segregating many if not all, public places for whites and blacks. African Americans were treated inferiorly and with no respect. World War I erupted in 1914, sending millions of soldiers from America to Europe. African Americans were sent along side Caucasians to fight in World War I due to there not being enough white soldiers in the military. Many African Americans felt as if they needed to prove their loyalty, respect and earn equality in America by battling in this war. African American soldiers being sent to the war wanted to prove their worthy of citizenship to America. WWI allowed a unique and significant opportunity for African Americans.
1. Dorie miller was awarded the Navy Cross for his courage and devotion of duty in the Navy during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. Two years later he was missing in action which is understandable with the racism that was happening at that time. With President Roosevelt's signing of the Selective Service Act which did not allow the blacks and whites to intermingle. This caused anger amongst the black Americans. A. Philip Randolph was shocked at President Roosevelt’s discrimination. With blacks highlighting the hypocrisy from the White House stating “White House Blesses Jim Crow”, (Takaki, 23) we must have a dual battle. Hitler in Europe and Hitler in America, this war is suppose
Kersten, Andrew E. "African Americans and World War II." Organization of American Historians Magazine of History. Organization of American Historians, n.d. Web.