A prevalent but highly economical constraint that has plagued inner city communities is a lack of financial income. Studies have identified “costs of registration, equipment and travel expenses”, as key determents of the lack of participation within recreational activities by lower and single income families (Hughes et al, 1992). Though many programs are offered for free, programs which require fees discourage youth in lower income families from participating (Torrance, 1998). Many Inner cities do not offer recreational programs for its residents within the community, forcing the residents to seek recreational activates elsewhere. This results in additional investments in both time and transportation cost, as many low income families cannot afford a car (Hughes et al, 1992).
In particular cases, certain people with mental issues cannot or will not willingly be institutionalized, and since they have difficulty getting jobs, they live on the streets, panhandling and collection recyclable materials to make money. These are the main causes of homelessness and only scratch the surface of why homelessness exists and who it happens too. It is reasonable to suggest that being homeless isn’t usually voluntary. While there are instances where people purposefully live without a home, most are forced to live that way. Being Douglas 3 homeless is not glamorous, these people are forced to live with whatever belongings they can carry with them, however old or tattered those possessions might be.
Poor human capital and poor avenues for human capital investment lead to a lack of social mobility across generations of slum residents. Slum removal programmes have come under considerable attack in recent years as it has become obvious that the removed population seldom relish their new accommodation. In the past, relocation has involved moving families to sites well outside the urban area, where many were unable to settle due to the lack of income-generating opportunities. Physical separation from jobs, schools and health clinics imposes economic burdens on the poor, many of whom reside on the urban periphery. Overcoming this physical separation often means devoting disproportionate shares of income to public transport fares and enduring long journeys.
There are many people and families that are struggling to pay bills, buy food, and keep their families safe from crime. The truth is many people and families in these cities do not know how to find assistance or help with these situations. Many also do not understand how to even look for assistance and help. However there is much assistance and help for many cities and its residence. There is also many ways in which the government can do to make many of these deteriorating cities livable again.
Indeed, life becomes better and their living conditions improve for some of the migrants. However, it is undeniable fact that a lot of migrants end up in poverty because some cities are not capable to deal with the outsized arrival of new residents in a proper system. This resulted to the association of rural to urban migration with problems corresponding to urban poverty, inadequate sanitary conditions, sub-standard housing, development of slums and shanty towns, increasing waste and water pollution, congestion, crime or insecurity in the city centres. The problems are somewhat similar in every nation and have become more challenging now (Fischer,
Employment that is secured must be organized according to bus schedules that often do not mesh well with work hours. Employers will often choose to hire employees that do not have these barriers. Access to employers that are willing to pay a living wage seems to be limited for city of Richmond residents as this barrier appears to secure their spot in public housing. Contrary to... ... middle of paper ... ...up the pockets of poverty that crime will be eased. Breaking up pockets of poverty is a geographical project that is not an easy fix.
To illustrate my point, poor people normally unable to pay for their basic necessities. For example, housing, child care, health care, education, food. They have to make a decision between these limited resources. Housing usually cost the most so often poor people will give up their housing to ensure they are able to pay for other necessities. The next cause of homelessness is lack of job opportunities.
Economic implication of congestion Congestion is a condition of traffic delay due to the number of vehicles trying to use the road exceeds the traffic network capacity to handle them. Congestion is a major problem growing in many towns like Windhoek. In general congestion delays travel to reach their destination on time as planned. One can be thinking of implementing congestion charging to reduce to reduce this issue. There are many various economic implications of congestion as follow: Congestion causes loss of productivity Business exists in towns where many people live, for them to sell or buy products and make profits.
In theory these systems could lead to great reductions in private vehicle trips but past experiences show different results and one of the reasons is the schedule differences between people. Carpooling systems search that higher occupancy, particularly in commuter trips, associating neighbors who travel to work places next to each other, using their vehicles one at a time on a day-to-day or week-to-week basis. The advantages for the user can be fuel cost reduction, automobile maintenance reduction, parking availability and increased trip comfort. From its viability point of view the most difficult pools to form are those constituted by people who are not part of the same household, “external” carpooling, and that is why they represent a smaller share of the total carpoolers in the Washington, D.C. where these programs started earlier. At the same time these are the most interesting from its potential result in congestion reduction, because the “external” carpool feels the responsibility for vehicle provision and driving which is difficult to break when there is less intimacy between people.
This causes overuse and congestion. Congestion occurs when the demand for transportation surpasses the supply. Not only does excessive use of the automobile affect congestion and traffic circulation, but it also leads to a decrease... ... middle of paper ... ...s in Prospect Park, and expanded the bicycle network. New York City and the MTA have implemented a new Bus Rapid Transit routes, with more than twenty new lines to link underserved communities. This Rapid Transit system has saved many outer-borough commuters a lot of time and has stimulated the economies of communities the subway does not reach.