During this time children are faced with the pressures of adjustment, expected academic performance, puberty, peer pressure and peer conflict. It is reported that as many as 25% of adolescents in the Untied States will experience a full blown depression episode by the age of 18 (Bradley, Mcgrath, Brannen , & Bagnell , 2010). In the past research suggest that it was difficult to determine and distinguish pubescent depression from the natural emotional and physical changes that occur during puberty(David et.... ... middle of paper ... ...012). Peer Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Depression: The Role of School Transitions. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(3), 320-332.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(2), 170-180. doi: 10.1177/0146167212468333 Sabour, N., & Yaacob, S. N. (2011). Post-divorce parental conflict and adolescents’ delinquency in divorced families. Asian Culture and History, 3(2), 34-40. doi: 10.5539/ach.v3n2p34 Schroeder, R. D., & Mowen, T. J. (2012). Parenting style transitions and delinquency.
The influence of maternal depression, caregiving, and socioeconomic status in the post-natal year on children's language development. Child: Care, Health & Development, 34(5), 603-612. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2008.00837.x
Compas, Bruce E. “Coping with Stress During Childhood and Adolescence.” Psychological Bulletin 101.3 (1987): 393 – 403. PsychINFO. Web. 14 Jan. 2014 Margolin, Gayla, and Elana B. Gordis. “The Effects of Family and Community Violence on Children.” Annual Review of Psychology 51 (2000): 445 – 479.
Statistics and factors In reality, ... ... middle of paper ... ...sed study of childhood sexual contact in China: Prevalence and long-term consequences. Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal, 32(7), 721-731. Minli, L., Alvin Shiulain, L., Amelia C., R., Jun Sung, H., & Kaishan, J. (2011). Child maltreatment in China: An ecological review of the literature.
Parental Behaviors During Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence. Journal Of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(1), 59-71. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9542-2 Sheeber, L., Davis, B., Leve, C., Hops, H., & Tildesley, E. (2007). Adolescents’ relationships with their mothers and fathers: associations with depressive disorder and subdiagnostic symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 114-154. Sheeber, L., & Sorensen, E. (1998).
Effect of Child and Family Poverty on Child Health in the United States. Pediatrics, 707-711. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Yoo, J., Slack, K. S., & Holl, J. L. (2010). The Impact of Health-Promoting Behaviors on Low-Income Children's Health: A Risk and Resilience Perspective.
In Starr and Wolfe’s book The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect (1991), they discuss the developmental outcomes of child maltreatment in a life span. Development in a child has critical period that can be effected if traumatized in the process. Aspects of low adult psychological outcome have been shown in some studies. It was found that... ... middle of paper ... ...ects of childhood abuse on the quality of life and health of older people: Results from the Depression and Early Prevention of Suicide in General Practice Project. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56(2), 262-271. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01537 Kamsner, S., & McCabe, M. P. (2000).
Long-term impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality in adulthood and the mediating role of psychosocial resources. Journal Of Family Psychology, 25(4), 615-619. doi:10.1037/a0023996 Størksen, I., Røysamb, E., Holmen, T. L., & Tambs, K. (2006). Adolescent adjustment and well-being: Effects of parental divorce and distress. Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 47(1), 75-84. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00494.x Wallerstein, J., Lewis, J., & Packer Rosenthal, S. (2013). Mothers and their children after divorce: Report from a 25-year longitudinal study.
Erikson spent a great deal of time on the fifth stage of adolescence because this is the time when the individual develops an identity and it is a time when the individual faces difficult identity crises. Erikson explained each stage in life is both "psycho" and "social." The psycho part has to do with this stage's foundation previous stages and the fact that it is both a self-conscious phase and an unconscious phase. This stage of development, therefore, depends to some degree on psychobiological factors that bring the individual to a coherent sense of self. The past gives the adolescent the strong identifications made during childhood but at the same time, the individual is searching the present for new models on which to base their adulthood (Erikson, 1975).