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Basic Technology of Internal Combustion Engines The ¬basic principle behind any internal combustion engine ever since their inception has been the same: If a tiny amount of high-energy fuel (like gasoline or diesel) is put in a small, enclosed space with high pressure and ignited, energy is released in the form of expanding gas. Thus, the ICE converts chemical energy stored in the fuel to mechanical energy that propels, in this case, the vehicle forwards. Exhibit 1 illustrates the ICE. Exhibit 1 Almost all vehicles that utilize ICE use four-stroke combustion cycle that work as follows: 1. Intake valve opens to let a mixture of air and fuel inside the cylinder. 2. The piston moves back up to compress the air/fuel mixture. 3. The spark plug emits a spark to ignite the fuel that causes a mini explosion driving the piston down. 4. Once the piston hits the bottom of the stroke, the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust leaves the cylinder to the tailpipe. The basic difference between ICE and external combustion engine (ECE) is that while in ICE the fuel combustion takes place inside the ...

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