By observing Michael Foucault in the “The History of Sexuality” (1976) as well as Annamarie Jagose & Judith Butler in “Queer in Queer Theory” (1996), we become aware of different ideas/identities of the self. It also shows the debate and hardships homosexuals experience with self-id... ... middle of paper ... ...er Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Idendity. Foucault, M. (1976). “Scientia Sexualis”. In The History of Sexuality: Vol 1 (1990).
The very term Sexualit‘ies’ bursts the notion of sexuality as a monolith institution. It underlines the fact that there is more than one form of sexuality which are often suppressed and constantly marginalised to legitimise and uphold the dominant norm. However I will use the terms ‘Sexuality’ and ‘Sexualities’ as interchangeable in this paper. I will begin by tracing various approaches that have historically been adopted to understand sexuality. Then I will discuss sexuality as a form of desire (transgression of heteronormative ideal) and how the women’s movement in India is conceptualizing it.
One of the first questions that must be answered, of course, is why is it important to look at literature from a queer perspective? Is a reader, such ... ... middle of paper ... ...otte Perkins Gilman and the Politics of Form." Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 14.2 (1995): 273-293. Flannigan-Saint-Aubin, Arthur. "The Mark of Sexual Preference in the Interpretation of Texts: Preface to a Homosexual Reading.
Queer, a word first used by the Scottish in 1508 to mean strange, peculiar, or eccentric, has evolved into a critical theory signifying resistance to the traditional views on gender and sexuality since the early 1990s. An Italian author and professor, Teresa de Lauretis coined the term “Queer Theory” during a conference on conjecturing gay and lesbian sexualities held at the University of California. Heavily influenced by deconstruction, post-structuralism, and feminism, queer theory challenges the practice of assigning people to different categories based on a person’s description. Queer theory constructs itself around the concept that identities are not fixed and therefore queer theorists “object to statements that would construct boundaries” (Kirsch 34). As various aspects and components contribute to a person’s identity, it is incorrect to limit human beings into a single group.
Can we identify the lesbianism of the authors and characters? What do these writers and characters say about lesbianism and more particularly their own lesbianism?” (Farwell 11) Using Farwell’s breakdown as a guide, we can then determine what makes a novel like The Hours into a queer narrative. In an interview with Steven Drukman, Cunningham discussed the political purpose of the novel: “I originally imagined I would…try to use the AIDS epidemic very much the way Woolf used World War I – with this sense of a new culture rising up out of the ruins of the old.” (Drukman 62) As an author, Cunningham dedicated much of his early writing to chronicling the experience of gay Americans in the age of AIDS - working closely with the gay activist group ACT UP several times. He was able to use his experiences as an activist to bring... ... middle of paper ... ... you get through that one and then, my god, there’s another. ” (Cunningham 197-198) Both characters also hear the voices of their past – eventually leading to both Septimus’ and Richard’s deaths.
CRAIG A. RIMMERMAN, The Lesbian and Gay Movements: Assimilation or Liberation? (2008). Q. Wilson, James “against homosexual marriage”. Commentary magazine.com. 1st march 1996.
“ Gay Marriage legal in six states” Stalin, state policy and politics, updated daily. The Pew, inc. 4 June 2009. Web 20 April 2011. Vestal, Christine. “Law and civil rights: Same sex marriage”.
While lesbian culture is meant to be a challenge to these heterosexual norms, and yet its definition of butch-fem roles performs its own marginalization that ultimately reinforces traditional male-female roles. Interestingly, it also uses this power structure to establish the racial exclusions of non-white women that can be traced through the history of European colonization. In relation to how sexual minorities like lesbians are marginalized by the power elite in society, Judith Butler explains the politicization of sexuality through the performance of sexual identity by constantly rearticulating and re-establishing heterosexuality as the norm. Ironically, the term “heterosexual” cannot claim authority as ... ... middle of paper ... ...lizing oppositions. Yet, why are these clear defined boundaries of sexuality placed with such importance?
Since the dawn of the Victorian Era, society has perpetuated unrealistic gender performance ideals that supposedly find their roots within biological sexual differences. Judith Butler has spent a lifetime seeking to break the mold todays social constructions, specifically surrounding gender and sexuality. The theory this pioneer pegged is now known as Queer Theory, and brought forth in the education system through Queer Studies courses. In the text Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality by author Anne Fausto-Sterling, gender and sex are similarly challenged on both a social and biological level. When reviewing Fausto-Sterling’s work in conjunction with Queer Studies and Human Sexuality, an efficient and effective format is loosely based upon a Critical Literary analysis.
This essay will explore ways in which these texts conform to, or are in denial of, the transgender identity through discussion of stereotypical masculine and feminine identities, transgender as performance, the complex nature of sexuality and the revelation of biological sex. Identity, for many, is a concept which has enabled individuals to share mutual life experiences in order to share similar social positions such as sexuality, gender and class. Thus, in Boys Don’t Cry Brandon, a female to male transgender, predominantly acknowledges heteronormativity through visual images and mannerisms of stereotypical masculinity. Cooper suggests that the dominant image within the texts narrative is the ‘self-actualisation’ that Brandon is a male. The fact that Brandon is constantly referred to through the masculine pronoun ‘he’ and admires himself as a man by looking in the mirror.