This religion traces its inception to Marcus Garvey (born in 1887), whose philosophical ideologies were the catalyst that would eventually grow into the Rastafarian movement in 1930. Rastafarianism is often associated with the black impoverished population of Jamaica. It is not just a religion to them but a way of life, a struggle for their rights and freedom. In the early 1920's, Garvey an influential black spokesman was founder of the "back-to-Africa" movement. He spoke of the redemption of the black people through a future black African king .
Garveyism and Rastafarianism I. Introduction In the twentieth century, two movements have emerged out of Jamaica in protest of black oppression and slavery, both mental and physical. The first to evolve was Garveyism, founded by Marcus Garvey, and was born in the aftermath of the First World War. Rastafarianism was the second movement to emerge, lead by Leonard Howell during the depression years of the 1930’s. Garveyism and Rastafarianism are both resistance movements based on the same ideal: consciousness and essentialism of Africa and its descendants.
Rastafarianism Rastafarianism began as a religion of the dispossessed. In 1930, a prophecy of deliverance was fulfilled for Jamaica’s slum-dwellers and rural poor. Ethiopia symbolized Africa and the homeland for the slave-descended Jamaicans. Ras Tafari Makennen, in 1930, became Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia. Emperor Selassie claimed to be a direct descendent of King Solomon.
Because of this, the movement is referred to as, “The Rastafari Movement.” This movement began when Marcus Garvey taught that Africans are the real Israelites, but have been banished to Jamaica as well as other parts of the world as an eternal punishment. Marcus Garvey also led a “Back to Africa” movement and supported black pride. Garvey is said to be a second John the Baptist and prophesied, “Look to Africa, for there a King shall be crowned,” in 1927. On November 2, 1930 Ras Tafari Makonnen was crowned the emperor of Ethiopia. He changed his name at the coronation to Haile Selassie, which means “Might of the Trinity.” Other titles he went by were, “conquering the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of the Kings of Ethiopia, and Elect of God.” Distinctive texts for Selassie were Revelation 5:5, Ezekiel 28:25, and Garvey’s prophecy.
Rastafari and Garveyism In the twentieth century two movements have emerged out of Jamaica in protest of black physical and mental slavery by the white European establishment. The first to emerge was Garveyism, founded by Marcus Garvey after World War I. The second is Rastafari founded by Leonard Howell during the depression in the 1930s. Each movement founded by unknown figures and each committed to freeing blacks from social and political oppression. However, Rastafari contains a spiritual side from which all the major differences between the two arise.
The mentality of humanization upheld in Rasta acted as force of mental liberation. The influence of this ideology upon society around the time of Independence was reflected in politics of the time. At the time of Independence serious historical issues of lack of representation of the black majority were articulated in the words and works of Rastafarians and their liberating ideology. Colonialism in Jamaica established a lasting social and economic hierarchy that benefited the white minority at the expense of the black majority. The colonization of Jamaica began with the Spanish occupation of the island in the early 1500’s.
Some of the events that nationalism has affected would be World War 1, the Indian independence movement, and the African independence movement. Nationalism had a vital role to play in the build up in the World Was One, as different nations sought to impose their authority on the rest of the world. Na... ... middle of paper ... ..., and promotes values that are the product of the African civilization and the struggles against slavery, racism, colonialism. Pan-Africanism can be seen as a product of the European slave trade. Enslaved Africans of diverse origins and their descendants found themselves embedded in a system of exploitation where their African origin became a sign of their servile status.
The tribal stratification was changed to a caste system where racial, ethnic, and religious differences were of utmost importance, as delegated by European rule. The structure and business of the African economy was directed by what the colonial powers felt was necessary. The European powers interjected in the African society and inflicted them with their supposedly superior way of life. The slave trade was one important method that the Europeans used to dominate the Africa. Even though the slave trade was beginning to decline by the early 19th century, it gave the Europeans a pass into the whole continent, enabling them to divide the land as they pleased.
The book starts with his plenary address from the said conference. The two components incorporate a history of bondage in the Eastern Caribbean with the justification for demanding for reparations based on the consequences of servitude. The book depicts the natural inclination for ‘revisionism’, as well as the obligation to stand for the rights of our predecessors and demand reparations from Britain. Beckles is objective in his writing. He presented data from global sources, including Britain, also a few case studies such as the ‘Zong Massacre’, to help prove that slavery was a national crime against humanity.
Africa was the epicenter of slave trade, and the Gold Coast of Western Africa monopolized the slave trade from the mid-18th century until its abolition. Europe’s suppression of the slave trade caused the Western to turn to legitimate trade which consisted of other highly desired, but legal, goods such as gold, ivory, and vegetable oils-most notably palm oil. The British used palm oil in the manufacture of soap, candles, and lubricants, and the extent to which the Africans exported this product altered many aspects of their lives. For example, the high demand for palm oil allowed it to completely transform the social structure of coastal African communities. Coastal traders would utilize the wealth they had accumulated from the trade of palm oil to purchase slaves to operate the large canoes that transported the palm oil and other products from inland markets to coastal trading ports.