History Of Current Mode Circuits

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In the last decade, current mode circuits have become popular. Current mode circuits exhibit reliable high frequency response, have simpler architecture, provides better dynamic ranges and operate at lower voltages than their voltage mode counterparts. Among all current mode devices, Dual output second generation Current Conveyor (CCII±) by far is the most popular one. It is widely considered as the op amp equivalent in current mode signal processing. Its performance is characterized by the voltage and current following behaviors. To exploit wideband and wide dynamic range capabilities under low power operation of current-mode signal processing, a CCII based on the translinear loop has been designed. These translinear CMOS circuits exhibit an excellent current following behavior from port X to port Z over a wide bandwidth, but the voltage following property from port Y to port X is poor and the offset voltage is rather high. In this paper, a wideband CMOS realization of the CCII based on the long tail differential pair with rail to rail input stage is designed to improve the dynamic range.
The current conveyor is a basic building block that can be implemented in analog circuit design. This was introduced by Sedra and Smith in 1968 but its real advantages and innovative impact was not clear at that time. In recent years, current-mode circuits have emerged as an important class of circuits with properties of accuracy, high frequency range and versatility in a wide range of applications. Current conveyor represents the emerging class of high performance analog circuit design based on current mode approach. It has simple architecture, wider bandwidth and capability to operate at low voltage. The c...

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...utput offset current and voltage and also, the value of voltage and current gain of this CCII is comparable with the CCII reported in [3].


In this thesis, CMOS Current Conveyors for high frequency applications have been presented. current conveyor, namely, Second Generation Current Conveyor (CCII) has been analyzed and designed using TSMC 0.18μm CMOS technology process parameters. The simulation results have been presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the circuits.
The design of second generation current conveyor provides a voltage gain of 1.03 and current gain of 1.04. For a biasing current of 26μA, the circuit provides the voltage and current bandwidth of 4.3GHz and 2.05GHz respectively; hence this circuit can be used for high frequency applications. The excellent current following action is also achieved from input port to the output port.

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