Millions of households now subscribe to DBS services resulting in what appears to have the cable industry wondering what’s going to happen. Cable was introduced in the late 1940’s in the “boone docks” of Pennsylvania when it’s original name was known as CATV, or Comunity Antenna TV. During this time there were only a few stations and in order to even recieve any picture, a TV set had to be in the vacintaty of antenna where a signal could be recieved. Anyone with a TV who lived to far from the antenna would be crap out of luck. Finally an appliance store owner named John Walson hooked up an antenna to a nearby mountain where he recieved a signal from the cities transitter and wired it down to his store for a good picture.
VHS home recording format is introduced in 1976. Also in 1976, cable television's first Superstation, Turner Broadcasting's WTCG, is beamed via satellite to cable homes across the country. Dolby surround sound for home sets is introduced in 1982. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1989 gives final approval to an 1125/60 HDTV production standard. The 1990 Children's Television Act is the first congressional act that specifically regulated children's television and one of its requirements was a minimum of 3 hours per week of educational programming.
I am going to be looking at the ways in which Rupert Murdoch has changed the television industry in the UK. After mainly specialising in the medium of print Murdoch decided that TV was more of a growing medium here in the UK so in 1989 his media organisation, New International launched a four channel service SKY the UK's first 24 hour news channel using The Astra satellite. Fourteen months later another satellite new provider, British Satellite Broadcasting was launched. Murdoch then had direct competition for a short period of time. For six month... ... middle of paper ... ...a danger that they would lose subscribers.
Clear Channel and the Cultural and Socio-Political Ramifications of Media Consolidation I.INTRODUCTION In 1996, Congress passed the Telecommunications Act thereby lifting restrictions on media ownership that had been in place for over sixty years (Moyers 2003; Bagdikian 2000: xviii). It was now possible for a single media company to own not just two radio stations in any given local market, but eight. On the national level, there was no longer any limit on the number of stations a company could own – the Act abandoned the previous nation-wide ownership cap of forty stations (20 FM and 20 AM). This “anti-regulatory sentiment in government” has continued and in 2004 the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved a new rule that would allow corporations to own “45 percent of the media in a single market, up from [the] 35 percent” established by the 1996 Act (Croteau & Hoynes 2001: 30; AFL-CIO 2004). Companies can now also own both a newspaper and a television station in the same city (AFL-CIO 2004).
These two mergers created a company ready to lead in any form of media. The company launched the HBO television network. Time Warner, headquartered in New York, had $27.3 billion in revenues in 1999 and a market value of $112.6 billion. On the other side of the merger there is new media giant AOL, today the biggest, richest, and most successful internet company in the world. It was founded in 1985 as Quantum Computer Services and by 1994, after changing its name, had a million subscribers.
Another aspect of Telstar that helped progress the television was the fact that it broadcasted globally, creating a global television community. Another huge leap in the progression of television was the launch of another satellite. This new satellite, named PanAmSat, was the first privately owned international satellite. Its 1988 launch cut the costs of broadcasting globally, making international news as readily available as domestic news. The 1980s brought cable television to the world.
Viacom formed when FCC rules had forced CBS to spin off some of its cable TV and program operations, this happened in 1971. Viacom then buys WAST-TV in 1979, in 1985 Blockbuster Video is founded, in 1981 the NAI buys majority interest ( Sumner Redstone owns this), in 1994 Viacom announces multi-transponder, multi-satellite agreement with PanAmSat. Also in 1994 Viacom and Paramount announces 8.4 billion dollar merger, Viacom then sells its 33% share of Lifetime. In 1995 Viacom spins off its cable systems for Tele-communications, in 1999 Viacom bought CBS for 50 billion dollars. There are other acquisitions and selling’s through which Viacom became so large, but I did not include every little thing.
During that same year Kmart began converting its traditional stores to a new high frequency format designed to improve the customer shopping experience. A new name, Big Kmart, was assigned to these stores (in April 1997) (kmartcorp.com). However, all the changes Kmart made throughout its long history to remain current with ideas of the times, were not enough to help Kmart maintain its competitive edge. Kmart also m... ... middle of paper ... ... Levy, M. “Kmart-Sears Merger” Start Tribune 18 November 2004. Academic Universe: Business.
These two types of satellites use different frequencies much as VHF and UHF broadcast TV use different frequencies. Communications satellites were originally designed for commercial purposes for sending telephone, radio, TV, and other signals across the country and around the world for retransmission to businesses and homes by local telephone companies, TV stations, or cable companies. Enterprising individuals soon learned to build satellite dish receivers to pick up these signals at their own home, and begin making and selling these systems to homeowners around the country, thus beginning the era of home satellite TV. During the 1980's and early 1990's, several million of these C-band systems were sold with dishes generally around the 10' diameter size. One of the early pioneers in the C-band business was Charlie Ergan who founded Echosphere Corporation.
Satellite Radio: Will Howard Stern's move make us change the way we think about radio? Howard Stern's plan to move to satellite radio in January 2006 marks a major turning point for the radio industry. Not only has Stern brought the possibility of subscribing to satellite radio into the minds of the millions in his audience, he has also gotten more people to start thinking and talking about what really distinguishes satellite radio from traditional radio. Satellite radio was first authorized by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) in 1997, seven years after initial applications. The delay in approval was in part the result of protests by the National Association of Broadcasters which charged that the service threatened "traditional American values of community cohesion and local identity."