Germany's Change From a Semi-Absolutist Monarchy in 1918 to a Parliamentary Republic in 1919

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Germany's Change From a Semi-Absolutist Monarchy in 1918 to a Parliamentary Republic in 1919

In the period of 1918 to 1919, Germany overcame a dramatic change.

There were a number of reasons for this change.

Initially the defeat of Germany in World War One brought Germany close

to an economic and potential collapse. This led to the revolutions

from below and above, and ultimately to a new constitution.

As a result of the defeat, the Kaiser abdicated on 9th November 1918,

and no longer ruled over Germany. Prince Max von Baden transferred his

powers to Friedrich Ebert A plan to transform Germany into a

constitutional monarchy similar to Britain quickly became obsolete as

the country slid into a state of near-total anarchy. At this point in

time, Germany was flooded with soldiers returning from the front, many

of whom were wounded physically, psychologically, or both. Violence

was rampant, with fights breaking out even between rival leftist

groups.

Germany was already controlled by the Generals, and was on the Kaisers

orders. The Generals decided to put Germany into the Civilian

Governments hands; this is known as the 'revolution from above'. On

the 29th of September 1918 there was a meeting of the German High

Command. One decision, which came from the meeting, was that the

German High Command would apply a programme whereby they would pass a

'revolution from above'. This policy was designed to prevent the

collapse of the elites interests in the government, military and

business. Another idea reason for the revolution was, if possible, to

protect the name and reputation of the Kaiser and Monarchy.

It was at this meeting that the first steps were taken to build and

construct the 'stab-in-the-back' theory. In this way the military

command were taking the primary steps in releasing themselves from

responsibility for the direction and outcome of the war.

It was on October 28, 1918, the 1871 constitution was finally amended

to make the Reich a parliamentary democracy, which had been rejected

for half a century. The Chancellor was hereafter responsible to

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