Retrieved 11 December, 2013 from http://www.oculist.net/downaton502/prof/ebook/duanes/pages/v8/ch025/005f.html Karp, G. (2013). Cell and molecular biology: Concepts and experiments (7th ed.). USA: John Wiley & Sons. Lefranc, M. P., & Huret, J. L. (2002). Atlas of genetics and cytogenetics in oncology and haematology.
08 November 2013. www.religioustolerance.org/ Stem Cell Technologies. 6 November 2013. www.geneticsandsociety.org/ UW-Madison. 12 March 2004. Cures and Clones: Stem Cell in the News. 10 November 2013. www.genetics.thetech.org.
Some people believe that it has the potential to become the new "miracle tool" of medicine. To others, this new technology borders on the realm of immorality, and is an omen of the danger to come, and are firmly convinced that this human intervention into nature is unethical, and will bring about the destruction of mankind (Lanza). Although humans have altered the genomes of species for thousands of years through artificial selection and other non-scientific means, the field of genetic engineering as we now know it did not begin until 1944 when DNA was first identified as the carrier of genetic information by Oswald Avery Colin McLeod and Maclyn McCarty (Stem Cell Research). In the following decades two more important discoveries occurred, first the 1953 discovery of the structure of DNA, by Watson and Crick, and next the 1973 discovery by Cohen and Boyer of a recombinant DNA technique which allowed the successful transfer of DNA into another organism. A year later Rudolf Jaenisch created the world’s first transgenic animal by introducing foreign DNA into a mouse embryo, an experiment that would set the stage for modern genetic engineering (Stem Cell Research).
"What Are the Risks of Cloning?" Learn.Genetics Genetic Science Learning Center. Science Education Partnership Award, 2013. Web. 24 Sept. 2013.
ProQuest (2004): n. pag. Web. 12 Jun 2010. http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/stemcell/overview.php "Stem Cell Basics." Stem Cell Information (2009): 1-8. Web.
PubMed Central (PMC), 12 June 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21663987 Pray, Leslie A., Ph.D. “Embryo Screening and the Ethics of Human Genetic Engineering.” Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, 2008. Web.