Rastafari - Roots and Ideology. New York: Syracuse Univ. Press, 1994. Rapoport, Louis. Redemption song: the story of Operation Moses.
However, in Jamaica, the term means "death to the Black ... ... middle of paper ... ...Freedom. New York: Penguin Books, 1995. Chang, Kevin O’brien and Wayne Chen. Reggae Routes. Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers, 1998.
(Douglass, 328.) This reveals the self-conscious relation of Appendix to main text, it's very inclusion highlighting the need Douglass felt to clarify his religious convictions. Such a necessity is indicative of a self-conscious struggle within Narrative of the Life to maintain a coherent "voice" while simultaneously conforming to prescribed notions of slave-narrative form. Abolitionist rhetoric, also, brought pressure to bear upon Douglass' approach, his patrons always a factor in the formulation of so overtly political a text. Douglass' mentor, William Lloyd Garrison, and Wendell Phil... ... middle of paper ... ...arrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave.
Rastafari and Garveyism In the twentieth century two movements have emerged out of Jamaica in protest of black physical and mental slavery by the white European establishment. The first to emerge was Garveyism, founded by Marcus Garvey after World War I. The second is Rastafari founded by Leonard Howell during the depression in the 1930s. Each movement founded by unknown figures and each committed to freeing blacks from social and political oppression. However, Rastafari contains a spiritual side from which all the major differences between the two arise.
He was also well known for being a pioneer of the abolishment of slavery. According to The Caribbean: History of the Region and its People “the Haitian revolution transformed the very meaning of freedom, not just in the Caribbean but far beyond it, ushering a new vision of human rights.” Even though Haiti failed as an independent state they must be recognized as the pioneers of a black sovereignty and a model for human rights to be practiced and accepted by the British, Spaniards and Americans. The Haitian revolution is regarded as a symbol of remodeling modern political dynamics in many respects as it responsible for placing emphasis on the importance of universal rights being a norm in democratic states and even in non-democratic states. From external readings I came across I found that the humanitarians during the 18th century did not recognize black equality, this was due mainly to the structure of power within society of which whites held the majority of power and wealth. It was not until about the middle of the 20th century that equality for black persons began to take effect.
Podis, Leonard A. and Yakubu Saaka, eds. Challenging Hierarchies: Issues and Themes In Colonial and Post colonial African Literature. Society and Politics in Africa. Vol 5. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1998.
This religion traces its inception to Marcus Garvey (born in 1887), whose philosophical ideologies were the catalyst that would eventually grow into the Rastafarian movement in 1930. Rastafarianism is often associated with the black impoverished population of Jamaica. It is not just a religion to them but a way of life, a struggle for their rights and freedom. In the early 1920's, Garvey an influential black spokesman was founder of the "back-to-Africa" movement. He spoke of the redemption of the black people through a future black African king .
4. Patterson, Orlando (1969) The Sociology of Slavery. Cranbury, New Jersey: Associated University Presses. 5. Phillippo, James M. (1971) Jamaica.
Sources The Politics of Change: A Jamaican Testament. Michael Manley. Howard University Press. Washington D.C. 1990. (tpoc) Democracy and Clientelism in Jamaica.
Olson, Eric. (Feb 2000). Mountain Rebels: The Flight from Slavery of Jamaicas’s Maroons. World and I v15:2, p234. Available: Expanded Academic Research.