Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design

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Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design

There are basically two main categories of measuring variables with a sample of participants or subjects: experimental and quasi-experimental. According to (Hopkins, 2008), research studies can be carried out using body tissues, cells, animals or humans. The researcher is looking for a relationship between the variables, and this can be accomplished using statistics, relative frequencies, and/or correlations (Hopkins, 2008). One can accomplish this by simply observing without influencing, manipulating, or controlling the environment or interaction. One can observe and explore one subject, or one can compare one subject with another (Hopkins, 2008).

Experimental Study

The goal of this study is to discover whether the intervention of using relaxing music has can impact the emotional state. The hypothesis of this study asks to what extent does listening or not listening to music before a test decrease test-taking anxiety in middle school students? The second hypothesis is to what extent does listening or not listening to music increase test scores in middle school students?

If the hypotheses are supported, then the students will not only state a decrease in physical and emotional symptoms of anxiety, but will score higher than the average of their prior three tests. This means that a decrease in anxiety will occur after the intervention, and a decrease in anxiety will produce a higher score. Having one variable decrease and the other increase is known as a negative correlation (Cozby and Bates, 2012). This means that there is a relationship between the two variables. Of course, this must be not only proven by statistical ev...

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Blankinship, D. G. (2011, January 13). Testing anxiety: Researchers find solution to help students cope. Huffington Post Education. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/0114/testing-anxiety-research_n_809221.html

Cozby, P. C., & Bates, S. C. (2012). Methods in behavioral research (11th ed.). New York, N.Y.: McGraw Hill.

Fiske, S. T. (2010). Social Beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hopkins, W. G. (2008). Quantitative research design. Sportscience, 4(1). Retrieved from http://www.mendeley.com/research/quantitative-research-design-5/

Smith, R. A., & Davis, S. F. (2007). The psychologist as detective: An introduction to conducting research in psychology (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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