European Constitutional Law
Broadly the employment relationship is regulated by voluntary as well as legal measures. Voluntary measures are made up of agreements and other decisions derived from collective bargains, arbitrations, grievance and discipline handling. Voluntary measures also include accepted standards of good employment practices. Legal measures include the European Union treaties and directives, common laws of contract and of tort, statutory code of practice and some international standards among other laws. In general practice, voluntary and legal measures are not isolated sets of measures as they are invariably interlinked and they influence each other. At various points, voluntary and legal measures influences ways in which employers exercise power control and how they organize their workforce as well as managing conflict of interest.
Childcare provisions vary within the member states of the European Union, and reflect different policy legacies revolving around childcare and employment. The new informal care model promotes the informal care within the family and other dependants, and it seems t promote choices between care work and paid work through an extension of universal childcare and incentives given to care for the children. The Ireland model emerging from the liberal model focuses on public provisions of care and increasingly supports the different forms of non-parental care through a mixture of targeted and universal measures.
The EU constitutional law is based on a clear objective that civil disputes are resolved in a way that meets the objectives of resolving civil disputes to meet the needs of the parties, conforming to the fundamental principles of justice. There is clarity that there ...
... middle of paper ...
... instance, the European Council laws encourage active involvement of social partners at the national level. Compliance and implementation of European hard and soft laws have developed different agendas. The European directives have moved beyond mere questions to examine compliance with and implementation of these laws at national level. Focusing on the national realm of soft laws, welfare states and comparative Europeanization has developed frameworks that explain how implementations of various EC Directives vary. There is a cause of action under the EU law since incorporating the European level uses the different welfare state regimes as a starting point in understanding how European Directives are implemented. The EU will make a difference and the domestic institutional changes will be attributed to the EU laws.