Essay Presidential And Presidential System

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Paper work Comparative analysis of presidential, semi-presidential and parliamentary systems. To compare the different governmental systems, we have to know the peculiarities and features of each system. The concept of differentiation of governmental system is based on the correlation of different branches of power. The principle of separation of powers origins from French revolution. The concept was formulated by Montesquieu, French enlightment political philosopher. Under this model, the state power was divided between 3 different branches, where executive power is wested by President and government, legislative power is exercised in Parliament and judicial power is given to courts. They have independent powers and areas of responsibility, so that the powers of one branch doesn't conflict the others'. The model is often used simultaneously with trias political principle. In order to prevent one branch from becoming supreme, and make the branches cooperate, the system of check and balances was introduced. This principle allows one branch to limit the other ones, or check whether it fulfills its competences duely. The most general type of republic is parliamentary system, often called parliamentary democracy. A parliamentary system is a type of republic, where the power of parliament exceeds the power of president. Although, president reserves some key competences. Generally, the members of government are also members of parliament, and accountable to Parliament. If the government doesn't get the vote of confidence, it can be dismissed by the Parliament or achieves the appointment of new elections to government. Such republics often have proportional electoral systems. The voters vote for parties rather than candidates. In th... ... middle of paper ... ... government can vary greatly from country to country. In this system, when the President and Premier are from different political parties, the government is cohabited. If the president's party win the elections, the system resembles the presidentialism, where Premier is "weak" and state policy is executed by President. In opposite, if the president's party loses elections, President just becomes a figurehead, delegates the comptences to the Premier. The semi-presidential system lies between the presidential and parliamentary. It has evolved in such way that all disadvantages of other systems are terminated. This sharing of executive power is one of the most important features of the semi-presidential system, what Sartori refers to a “ dual authority structure… a diarchy between a president who is head of state, and a prime minister who heads the government.
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