Essay On Framing Effect

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The way choices are framed impacts the way they are perceived and decided upon. Tversky and Kahneman (1981) suggested that choice between a "certain" and a risky option of equal expected value is affected by option phrasing, a phenomenon known as the framing effect. The framing effect is an example of a psychological terms called cognitive bias, in which people respond to differently to a choice depending on how it is presented; i.e. as a gain or as a loss. When a positive frame is presented, people tend to avoid the risky option, selecting the “certain” option as opposed to when a negative frame is presented, people tend to select the risker option. Gain and loss are defined in scenarios as descriptions of outcomes (i.e. lives lost or saved…show more content…
People tend to prefer certainty when considering gains and taking risks when considering loses (Rothman, Salovey, Antone, Keough & Martin, 1992). The underlying assumption that people respond differently to positively and negatively framed information has been applied to a broad range of decision problems ranging from health to food to saving lives. For instance, Meyerowitz & Chaiken (1987) demonstrated that exposure to negatively framed information promotes breast…show more content…
Growing literature suggests that emotional states can conditions the impact of given frame since the underlying role of emotions depends on problem (e.g. life or death scenarios). Druckman & McDermott hypothesized that exposure too negative (dying or losing) frame will be positively correlated with risky behaviors or choice sections. Vice versa was hypothesis to exposure to positive emotion. A similar study was done involving a treatment plan for a disease problem with results showing a
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