Equality in College Enrollment

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The United States has always dealt with problems concerning equality and equal chances for all. One of the solutions to this problem is known as affirmative action, or preferential selection used to include groups into areas where they have historically been excluded from. It takes factors such as race, gender, and ethnicity into account to increase minority representations. Its origin can be traced back to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prevented employers from hiring or firing individuals based on certain qualities. It was intended as a punishment for those who disobeyed this law. Later, President Lyndon Johnson’s Executive Order 11246 forced federal contractors to employ “affirmative action” as to not discriminate when hiring. It took the national stage in the autumn of 1972, when the Secretary of Labor’s Revised Order No. 4 fully implemented the executive order and applied it nation-wide. In 2006, 58% of Michigan voters approved Proposal 2, prohibiting preference and discrimination based on race, sex, ethnicity, or national origin in employment and public education. (Bonsur and Brokamp, law.cornell.edu). It clashed with the Supreme Court’s ruling of Grutter v. Bollinger, which decided that certain types of affirmative action were necessary for the country’s future. The NAACP’s legal defense force and a coalition of civil rights groups sued, saying it violated the 14th amendment. The U.S. District Court for the District of Eastern Michigan said that Proposal 2 did not violate the 14th amendment. The decision was appealed and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit initially decided that it was unconstitutional, eventually being agreed upon by the full Sixth Court. Michigan’s Attorney General, Bill Schuette, reques... ... middle of paper ... ... the Constitution did not outline for groups to receive more attention than others nor provide different degrees of equal protection and that thinking this way would give the Supreme Court more power than the Constitution allots it. (Affirmative Action, plato.stanford.edu). The reasons that the Medical School provided were dismissed by Powell as the school was discriminating and that it did not provide enough evidence to support its special programs. Here, affirmative action clashes with fairness as Bakke surpassed the prerequisites to attend the school but was denied entry, as it unfairly favored other groups that might have been less deserving of entry compared to Allan Bakke. As he was not given equal consideration, this is an example of the injustices affirmative action can impose to those who are not minority groups yet are still deserve to achieve their goals.
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