Different Categories of Genetic Testing

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Genetic testing is basically the analysis of an individual’s DNA to determine if they are susceptible to certain diseases or are carriers which can lead to their offspring suffering from a genetic disorder. Genetic testing is able to do so by indicating if there are any abnormalities or mutations in a person’s chromosomes, genes, or proteins. According to the Genetics Home Reference which is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, “more than 1,000 genetic tests are currently in use, and more are being developed (Genetics Home Reference, 2014).” There are three different categories of genetic testing which include gene tests, chromosomal tests, and biochemical tests. Gene tests, or molecular genetic tests, pinpoint any deviations or mutations in individual genes or short lengths of DNA and RNA that can lead to a genetic disorder. Chromosomal tests check for a genetic disorder by checking for larger genetic variations in whole chromosomes and long lengths of DNA. Biochemical tests focus more on proteins and enzyme activity (FAQ About Genetic Testing, 2014). Different genetic testing techniques are available to both adults and embryos. Testing done on adults usually occurs in order to find out whether or not they are a carrier and can pass a genetic disorder onto their offspring. Conversely, testing executed on embryos reveals if they are a victim of a particular genetic disease. The type of genetic testing that adults undergo in order to determine if they are carriers is called preconception or carrier testing. According to NYU Langone Medical Center “There are two ways that carrier testing is done. One way is by direct analysis of the genes. The genes are extracted from blood cells. The genes are tested for mutati... ... middle of paper ... ...d look inside the human genome. Even though our findings may be inconclusive now, with further research it could lead to cures of genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis. Works Cited What is genetic testing?. (2014, April 18). - Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/genetictesting About Genetic Testing. (2014, March 11). FAQ About Genetic Testing. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://www.genome.gov/19516567 Department of Pediatrics. (2013, January 1). About Carrier Testing. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://pediatrics.med.nyu.edu/genetics/clinical-services/carrier-testing/about-carrier-testing CFTR. (2014, April 28). - cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ATP-binding cassette sub-family C, member 7). Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/CFTR

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