The state of school-based bilingual assessment: Actual practice versus recommended guidelines. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 38(3), 190–200. Bedore, L., & Peña, E. D. (2008). Assessment of bilingual children for identification of language impairment: Current findings and implications for practice. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11(1), 1-29.
As Deaf Education teachers, our duty should be to promote functional living, social-interaction, and self-advocacy skills for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. It is especially important for Deaf Education teachers to promote this because the amount of support a deaf child receives at home may be minimal. In a classroom, there may be a student who has deaf parents to guide him/her through life. On the other side of the spectrum, there may be a deaf child of hearing parents whom show no interest in interacting with their deaf child. Those who have deaf parents are more likely to develop a strong sense of independence because they have their parents as role models.
Hearing and deafness: An introduction for health and educational professionals. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. Paul, P., & Jackson, D. (1993) Toward a psychology of deafness: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Snow, C., Burns, N., & Grilfin, P. (1998).
In America, English exists as the standard language. For that reason, it is understood that children will learn this as their primary language. However, according to the “National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders” website, “about two to three children per 1,000 are born deaf or hard of hearing”(Quick Statistics [NIDCD Health Information]) . Moreover, an article by Karen Kalivoda points out that “depending on the age of onset and the severity of the hearing loss, an individual's spoken language development may be radically affected”. Babies learn to speak by parroting the sounds around them; however, a deaf child does not hear these noises and, therefore, the child does not “develop their language” skills (Kalivoda).
"What Bilingual Toddlers Hear and Say: Language Input and Word Combinations." Communication Disorders Quarterly 21.1 (1999): 32-38. Print. Restrepo, M. A., A. P. Castilla, P. J. Schwanenflugel, S. Neuharth-Pritchett, C. E. Hamilton, and A. Arboleda. "Effects Of A Supplemental Spanish Oral Language Program On Sentence Length, Complexity, And Grammaticality In Spanish-Speaking Children Attending English-Only Preschools."
(2013). The effects of computer-assisted instruction using Kurzweil 3000 on sight word acquisition for students with mild disabilities. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(2), 87-103. Mechling, L.C., Gast, D.L., & Krupa, K. (2007). Impact of SMART board technology: an investigation of sight word reading and observational learning.
Schwartz, Sue, PhD. Choices in Deafness: A Parents Guide. New York: Woodbine House, 1987. Vaughn, Sharon-Elbaum and Batya, E., et al. “The Effects of Inclusion on the Social Functioning of Students with Learning Disabilities.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 1 Dec. 1996: 598.
"Measuring the Quality of Education: the Involvement of Bilingually Educated Deaf Children." American Annals of the Deaf 145.3 (2000): 268-74. Web. Lane, Harlan, Robert Hoffmeister, and Ben Bahan. A Journey into the Deaf-world.
Implants and ethnocide: Learning from the cochlear implant controversy. Disability & Society, 25(4), 455-466. doi:10.1080/09687591003755849 Strong, M., & Prinz, P. (1997). A study of the relationship between asl literacy and English literacy. Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2(1), 37-46. Retrieved from http://jdsde.oxfordjournals.org.eproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/content/2/1.toc
Bibliographic Reference: Axmear, E., Reichele, J., Alamsaputra, M., Kohnert, K., Drager, K., & Sellnow, K. (2005). Synthesized speech intelligibility in sentences: A comparison of monolingual English- speaking and bilingual children. Language, Speech, & Hearing Services in Schools, 36(3), 244-250. Summary: The researchers wanted to compare monolingual and bilingual children listening to synthesized and human speech. Axmear et al.