The Second Great Awakening, the religious revivalist movement of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, ignited not only a religious revolution that transformed the American landscape, but it also developed and cemented the individualistic ideologies that have driven American thought in subsequent generations. At its core, the Second Great Awakening was a religious response to the uncertainty of the period. The nation at the time was redrawing its boundaries westward to accommodate the booming population. The established Protestant denominations of the day, the Congregationalists and Anglicans, had failed to create their much desired religious utopias and discontent in their traditional beliefs set in. Through the means of renewed religious enthusiasm, a movement spread throughout the young nation seeking to reverse the spiritual apathy that had set in many of its Christian adherents.
Crowe, Brandon M. “Religious Liberty In America: The First Amendment In Historical And Contemporary Perspective-By Bruce T Murray.” Reviews In Religion & Theology 17.2 (2010): 152-155. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Feb. 2014. Hadden, Jeffrey K. “Religious Broadcasting And The Mobilization Of The New Christian Right.” Journal For The Scientific Study Of Religion 26.1 (1987): 1-24.
This piece of work is aimed at examining the role of religion in colonial America. 2.0 Puritanism in the 17th century The development of Puritanism in the 17th century together with the 18th century Great Awakening influenced the revolution of America greatly. Puritans had left England in the early 17th century to seek for refuge in America in fear of being persecuted following their faith that contravened the beliefs of the English government of the day (Cragg 3). What’s more, they shifted to America with the zeal to develop a society that was habitable. Puritans first occupied New England and preached their beliefs that disagreements in the society were caused by political, economic, and religious divergence.
Fundamentalism is rooted in American Protestantism where conflicts arose because of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century movement known as the Modernist Controversy. It concerned the leaning of some Christians toward intellectual developments such as evolutionary biology, which challenged the Bible’s account of creation. Gradually, Protestant denominations separated into two camps, modernists or liberals and traditionalists or conservatives. Liberals contended that believers should adjust their beliefs according to scientific and scholarly findings, while conservatives maintained that believers should continue to view the Bible as unerring and the ultimate truth (Weinberg and Pedahzur, 2003). Generic fundamentalism is a worldwide religious disposition that wants to recover and institutionalize parts of the past that have been obscured by modernistic ideas.
On the contrary, writings ... ... middle of paper ... ...een altered since then. In conclusion, the advancement of these three philosophies from the theological Puritan views to the great scientific and reason ideals of the Enlightenment showed how a reform of beliefs and ideas resulted in the progressively modern ethics that our society is based on today. Scientific reasoning of the world ignited ideas that the ignorant society of the Puritans was immensely closed-minded about. These ideas gave way to how we explain how things happen through the use of science and reasoning. Though Puritans saw that this great reform was a blasphemy against God, the Enlightenment expanded different beliefs of religion which furthered societies intellect and understanding of religion.
Some of the new ways that branched out of the religious affairs were Pietism, Romanticism, and various ranges of Deism. As result, the role of the Church was being substantially declined. One of the first ways in which Christians modernized their faiths was by a new philosophy of religion called pietism. These Christians who became "pietistic," believed that it was more important to lead a simple Christ-like life, than to insist on any specific dogma. These Christians demanded that rational thought be subordinate to faith and that inner devotion was more i... ... middle of paper ... ...orld saw an evolution of the common faith as a result of new scientific thinking and the seeking of new ideas or alternatives to the present ones.
Even though the First and Second Great Awakenings focused its attention on other matters of life later on, religion was the theme upon which they were built. The First Great Awakening started among the American colonial Protestants during the early 1700s, mainly due to the weakening of the strict Puritan tradition of religious doctrine, and in part, the religious decline caused by negative publicity from the Salem witch trials and the Enlightenment (www.wikipedia.org). The movement to correct these problems began with Jonathan Edwards, a strictly Puritan, orthodox theologian from Massachusetts who dedicated his time to bringing the people back to the strict Calvinist roots, and to reawaken the fear of God' (www.wikipedia.org). He was a powerful speaker, and preached to his large followings that it was to simply come to church was not enough to be saved, but they must also acknowledge their grievances in the heart, and feel God's love for them (Danzer, 38). He set off the wave of religious revival, as preachers traveled all across the colonies, attracted thousands of people to revival meetings of spiritual rebirth, gave impassioned sermons, and encouraged people to rededicate themselves to God (Danzer, 38).
Iconnoclasm and Iconophilia in Othello In his book War Against the Idols, Carlos Eire argues that iconoclastic resistance to the Medieval Catholic Church began with the gentle scolding of Erasmus and ended as the "shibboleth" of radical Calvinism.1 The use of images in religious instruction and practice was one of the major points of dispute between Protestant reformers and Catholic counter-reformers. Iconoclasm was certainly not confined to radical Calvinism; Anglican reformers, especially those who had spent time in continental Europe as exiles (like John Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury), quickly raised the issue in their country, which had its own unique history of religious reform. The discussions of image and idolatry in Calvin and Jewel represent particular theories of the image that derive from but also revise ancient Platonic theories of the image. Reformation iconoclasm brings up issues of ontology (who or what is God? ), epistemology (by what means are we to know him?
Led by the same liberal theologians who took offense to the pro-life policies laid out in Humanae Vitae, the aim was to transition the Church from an authoritarian power structure to a more democratic model. Humanae Vitae, and the indignation it caused was the catalyst for the reform movement to come to the fore. In response to the revolution, a counter-revolution formed. This consisted of conservative forces within the Church, led by the Pope himself. The counter-revolutionaries sought to prove through the multiple infallible councils of the Church’s history that the Church must be authoritarian.
Definitions: Two similar schools of thought within Dispensational theology are known as Classical and Progressive Dispensationalism. Classical and Progressive Dispensationalists believe that there is a distinction between the Church and Israel; however, they disagree on the relationship between the two during the millennial reign of Christ. Classical Dispensationalist views the church as a mystery and they argue the Church is completely and permanently distinct from Israel referring to the Church as a parenthesis in God’s earthly program for Israel. Poythress writes, “Classical Dispensationalist believes during the millennial ... ... middle of paper ... ...ld and New Covenants as the Hermeneutical Key for Christian Theology of Religion. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2010.